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There are two types of almonds: Nuts of the latter type contain prussic acid and thus are toxic when raw; these must be blanched and roasted before being processed into an oil, a paste, or an extract that is sued to flavor liqueurs and some confections. Almond paste is the soul of macaroons and marzipan.

Cambridge] Volume 2, p. Aaron's rod, which miraculously bore flowers and fruit, was of almond wood Numbers The ancient Greeks cultivated almonds, and their name for the nut, amygdalon, had become, via Latin, the botanical name of the species and, in corrupted form, is the name in modern European languages In classical times Phoenician traders introduced its cultivation into Spain; and it was being grown in the south of France Uses of almonds are in many instances of great antiquity.

They were of early importance in early Arabic and medieval European cookery, partly as a source of the almond milk which was used in early versions of blancmange Such products as marzipan and nougat and macaroon all depend on it. The Spanish range of almond-flavored cakes, biscuits, etc. Most important are the kernels of apricots Special varieties with uninteresting fruit are grown soley for their large, sweet, nontoxic seeds, which are used as almonds are used in the West. True almonds are barely known and not normally used.

Anderson Yale University Press: New Haven] p. Domestication of the almond, Prunus amygdalus, is usually placed in an area stretching from the eastern Mediterranean to Central Asia, where it is found in the wild. Likely it was domesticated by the third millennium B. The early Chinese knew of the tree and its kernels in Persia and other lands to the west. They also imported almond kernels, as among the tribute sent from Turkestan to China in T'ang times.

The tree itself was reported by the Arab merchant Soleiman to be cultivated in China in the mid-ninth century Though the above would seem to leave little doubt that almonds had been cultivated at least somewhere in China or its margins, there has nevertheless been controversy among Western scholars as to whether, at least in traditional times, almonds were actually grown there and whether the kernels that foreigners in China often called 'almonds' were almonds or apricot kernels.

Adding to the confusion were the similarities in appearance, taste, and use between apricot and almond kernels, which sometimes led the Chinese, on their part, to call the almond kernel by the name 'apricot kernel.

He also presented evidence from the Chinese literature suggesting that it was still cultivated there in the nineteenth century, but allowed the possibility that almond cultivation 'is now extinct in China. To this writer, it seems reasonable to believe that the almond could not have been widely cultivated in China and been missed by so many widely-traveled, careful observers.

Yet the evidence presented by Laufer seems to leave the possibility open that the almond continued to be cultivated in some places, especially in the far northwest. Boca Raton FL] p. This fits with H. Li's statement on the matter The fruit of the best variety contains a large stone with a fairly-soft shell and sweet kernel, and may be served as a snack, sometimes sugared, along with raisins and other kinds of nuts, or ground into almond flour which is made into almond cakes or cookies or into a thin porridge.

On occasion, such kernels may be salted, and in appearance and flavor are just like real almond. As for the preparation of such almond soup, Meyer noted that first rice was boiled until soft, then pounded and mixed with water until it had the consistency of milk.

Then a few bitter almonds were ground up and blended in along with sugar, and the soup served hot. The soup, which was tasty and stimulating, was commonly consumed by the Chinese just before going to bed. Such 'almond soup' or 'almond tea' was well-liked as a snack not only among the people of North China but in the Ch'ing court, was also believed effective against sore throat There was also a popular dish, found among those of Ch'ing court, called 'Almond Curd,' a cold gelatin dessert made of water, agar-agar, ground almonds, and sugar Prepared in a different, somewhat more elaborate way is the Cantonese dessert 'Fried Almond Custard' Chinese almonds are also commonly used in other ays, as in candies, cakes, and cookies, and in a broad range of main dishes, such as Cantonese 'Red and White Chicken with Almonds' and the Szechwanese 'Almond Duck'.

In the spring, the tree was one of the first to bloom, and late frosts could easily destroy its delicate buds. If the almond tree survived the frosts, it soon became a bestower of a wealth of gifts.

In addition to providing nuts, oil, and shells for fuel, the almond tree was aesthetically pleasing, with lovely flowers and beautiful leaves. So the almond tree inspired worship The identification of the almond as father or as mother reflected the fact that almond blossoms herald the spring and thus the birth of vegetation. Because the almond tree blossoms suddenly, the Hebrews considered it a symbol of haste, and because the almond tree that survives the frosts bestows gifts of nuts and oil, they considrered it a symbol of vigilance People revered the almond tree as a provider--of life, of love, and of happiness.

Santa Barbara] p. The practice of coating nuts and seeds for preservation purposes is ancient. Colorful sugar-coated almonds surface in Medieval times and flourish in the "modern" era. Recipes progressed via technology and time. Of the latter, Jordan almonds are probably the most highly regarded variety. Their long thin shape may have inspired the comparison of oriental women's eyes to almonds.

They have no connection whatsoever with Jordan they are mainly grown in Spain, in fact ; their name is an alteration of Middle English jaren 'garden' almond. Jordan Almonds are long and plump and pointed at one end They are highly esteemed both as a dessert item and for confectionery purposes. The Government will now experiment with the trees to determine the best localities for growing them. This species of almond is regarded by the agricultural authorities as the finest in the world, but only its fruit has heretofore reached this country, the trees having been jealously guarded in Spain.

The bush has been forwarded here by the Agricultural Department's agent, who is seaching in Spain for rare plants. They did not get on very well with their first attempts, but recently a nursery company doing business at Alameda imported some almond trees from France, where Jordan almonds are rarely found, and from one of these trees some very good specimens of what were supposed to be real Jordan almonds were 9produced.

In order to find out whether they were real Jordans, the nursery company sent samples to the United States Consul in Malaga The taste seemed quite the same, and there is a very little difference in the shape. A surprising feature of this incident lies in the fact that the almonds in question are said to have been grown on a tree imported from France The report from California and the result of my investigation would indicate If this be true, California growers probably will find the matter will be worth their attention, as both the demand and the prices for Jordan almonds have steadily increased during recent years.

Sugar coated nuts, known in Renaissance times as comfits have long been proferred as gifts. Until recently, sugar coated almonds were expensive. They were reserved for the finest banquets, especially wedding feasts. Today's wedding favors typically feature http: In , Massailot mentioned placing on the banquet table little baskets of dry sweetmeats decorated with ribbons: Not just wedding guests: Metz, Nancy, Paris, Verdun and Toulouse are among the cities and towns of France famous for their sugared almonds.

Earlier still, however, the Romans of classical times distributed them at public and private ceremonies. Sugared almonds are mentioned amnong the gifts given to great men in accounts of receptions In fifteenth-century Cambrai, Marguerite of Burgundy, at her wedding to Guillaume IV of Hainault, wished to have sugared almonds given 'to the common people by her comfit-maker Pierre Host New York] p. At the time of his immigration from Italy, Mr. Ferrara was a confectioner, skilled in the art of making Sugar coated candy almonds are otherwise knwon as "confetti" in Italy and other parts of Europe.

These candy-coated almonds were also called Jordan Almonds or almond dragees, and they continue to be a tradition at many weddings and celebrations. Early on, then they were covered with white sugar, they were a candy that symbolized purity and fertility From to , the sugar coated almond business grew. Ferrara was soon shipping his classic, always fresh and in-demand product all over the Midwest. Portland OR] p.

Adapted an illustrated to be posted by Leopoldo Costa. We would exert ourselves to no result if we tried to evoke it; all the efforts of our intelligence are of no use. Why does it seem to crop up everywhere we look? What are the mechanisms that determine its influence on how we chose, buy, consume, and enjoy ourselves? After all, one could say, eating and drinking are mere reflections of biological necessities and functions.

If this were actually the case, how could they ever become an arena for competing political projects, ideological approaches, and deep beliefs and principles?

If food were only a matter-of-fact, mundane requirement with which all humans need to cope on a daily basis, just like breathing or sweating, how could it acquire such weight and become the expression of multi-layered and intense attachments?

The answer is quite straightforward: In fact, hunger and the desire for incorporation and appropriation, together with sexual drives, are arguably at the origin of consumption in all its expressions. It is definitely the case for contemporary consumerism, which lies at the core of Western society as its propelling engine, filtered through social and economic structures and dynamics. After all, it was the desire for goods and commodities that prodded Europeans to travel, explore, and colonize Braudel ; Wallerstein ; Welch Nevertheless, as modern Western consumers, we are definitely more complex than a simple bundle of drives and impulses.

We are far from being defenseless victims of marketing and political maneuvers. We think, we evaluate, we decide, basing our choices and actions on values and goals.

Although crucial, the emotional and physical influences of hunger and ingestion on our day-by-day choices and behaviors are not sufficient to explain their impact on our perceptions and on the ways we categorize reality and deal with it. However, we cannot revert to the opposition between rationality and the soul, on the one hand, and matter, the flesh, and feelings, on the other. I will address the possibility of a different resolution of the contrast between reason and emotions, spirit and body.

To do this, we have to plunge into the complex and often still mysterious processes of the human brain, in order to acquire a better understanding of how our minds work. Food will provide us an unusual point of entry into the functions of the brain, emotions, and memories. It is enough to pause and recall our liveliest memories related to taste, smell, and sensual pleasure to realize that they do not simply mirror past events. Instead, they are vivid, profound, and emotional. Our bodies almost seem to relive these moments.

We are all more or less acutely aware of this. How does that happen? As a matter of fact, as we will see, most scientists now seem to agree that sensations and emotions heavily influence not only recollection, but also rational processes. According to recent research in neuroscience —exciting but developing and open-ended, like all scientific endeavor — memories turn out to be not fixed once and for all, but rather the result of an ongoing dynamic interaction between different activities in the brain and the information we receive from the senses.

That is to say, the brain re-creates memories in different ways every time they are recalled, depending on emotional and sensory stimulations.

Memories are alive and a fundamental part of who we are and of how we experience our lives. Gustatory and olfactory ones are especially intense. Their power over our functionality, even if often unconscious, enhances our experiences of desire, pleasure, pain, our emotional states and motivations.

Our body appears to be involved in all cognitive processes, including rational ones. We cannot disregard its relevance for our participation in consumption and pop culture. Let flavors and scents guide us in exploring our brains and bodies. And could there be a better muse than a chef who is also a scientist?

I have been a neurologist and a neurophysiologist for twenty years, and a chef for six. Being both a successful chef and a respected scientist, he is in a privileged position to analyze the connections between cognition and recollection in the realm of food and flavors.

His whole argument, which also influences his cooking style, is based on the concept that memory and mind activities, at least in the case of food, are closely connected with emotions through the senses, the body, and its most basic needs, hunger and thirst. Nevertheless, the spirit and the degree of ability to feel sensations depend exclusively on the individual.

The only necessities that the body recognizes from the brain are, in gastronomy, hunger and thirst. The necessity is to stay alive in some way or another: Everything depends on sensations; then memory and remembering take us to the world of analysis, from which a state of wellbeing and happiness, as well as its contrary, can derive.

His work enhances the notion that food is at the frontier between the biological and the cultural. No other organ in the human being embodies the complexity of this frontier better than the brain itself, where electrical and chemical signals become the texture of perception, memory, thought, creativity, and emotions.

Already in the seventeenth century, the French philosopher Descartes identified the pineal gland — the small endocrine organ located in the center of the brain that is responsible for the production of melatonin — as the contact point between res extensa and res cogitans, that is to say, between body and soul, the material and the spiritual worlds Descartes The fact that he focuses on food and its appreciation — that is to say, pleasure — is particularly relevant since taste and smell are the least studied senses, whose importance and impact on mental processes and especially on memory have been almost neglected Classen ; Rouby et al.

While highlighting the connections between food and memory, he states: It is something as lively and nimble as our own self, since.

These theories consider the senses and memory as faculties that limit themselves to mirror nature, and their contents as more or less precise reflections of the external world. For the Spanish chef, recollections are rather the result of an ongoing dynamic interaction between different properties of the brain and the stimuli deriving from the senses. In this process, memory is not fixed once and for all, but, rather, a creative and vibrant faculty that allows human beings to relive the past each time in different ways.

Furthermore, memory depends heavily on the body, not only because most of the material the mind elaborates is derived from the senses, but also because the body and the emotions connected with it pleasure, pain, fear influence the way memories are maintained and eventually recalled.

The necessary conclusion is that rational processes, heavily depending on memories, cannot be totally isolated from what is traditionally considered irrational, physical, and instinctual. Many activities, such as eating, cooking, having sex, dancing, singing, and exercising, place themselves beyond the mind vs. Using food and eating as points of departure, we will approach alternative theories concerning sensations, memory, and emotions, and more generally the relationship between body and mind.

We will see how pop culture employs food-related images and concepts to reflect on these issues, endorsing different theories and making them popular with the general public in the form of more or less natural assumptions about how our minds function, the role of feelings and sensations, and the appreciation of our own bodies.

Several science fiction narratives are based on an understanding of this function as a storage device where pieces of knowledge, actions, and even emotions are stored in neat equivalents of computer bytes, ready to be retrieved and, if necessary, mechanically substituted with electronically originated elements.

Mnemonic materials are considered discrete, composed of recognizable, circumscribed, interchangeable, reproducible components that can also be disposed of. Memories can be easily transferred from a human being to a machine: This theme plays an especially important role in sci-fi movies such as Johnny Mnemonic, The 6th Day, Strange Days, and many others. Just plug a computer in and upload. The information that you need will be safely and unassumingly stored in the memory of a professional.

In Robocop 3 the antagonists try to deprive Robocop of the emotional content of his memories, in order to transform him into a stupid but efficient killing-machine.

The theme of the cyborg, which usually is employed to undermine the concept of a unified, Cartesian subject, here denies the complexities of the mental life of human beings.

In the visionary movie 12 Monkeys, by Terry Gilliam, the character played by Brad Pitt, the schizoid founder of an anarchic organization trying to destroy humankind by spreading a deadly virus, finds himself wondering how his ex-psychiatrist managed to discover his plot. Six years ago I had not thought about the 12 monkeys They learned everything about me, and they put that into a computer where they created this model of my mind. Using that model, they managed to generate every thought I could possibly have in the next, say, ten years, which they then probably filtered through some probability matrix of some kind to determine everything I was going to do in that period.

So they knew everything I was going to do even before I knew it myself. In The 6th Day the personal memories of the main character, played by Arnold Schwarzenegger, are extracted through the optic nerve, saved on disk, and then transmitted to his clone, without suffering any damage.

During the movie both the main character and the clone share the same personality, the same sensibility, and the same set of memories, up to the point where they were extracted. Once again, memories appear to be easily encoded into bits and bytes, kept in some artificial device and used when necessary, without any change even if the person who uses them is not the same who produced them in the first place. At the dawn of the third millennium a machine has been created which is able to record everything a person experiences, sees, and feels, when connected with the surface of his or her head.

Stored on diskettes, these memories can be replayed, allowing another individual to relive them, with all their emotional charge and the sensations connected with them. Needless to say, the memory diskettes become a very popular device with the porn industry. These similarities between humans and machines appear to be so widely spread and accepted that contemporary culture often refers to computers to create metaphors for our brain.

Political scientists Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri affirm: Today we increasingly think like computers, while communication technologies and their model of interaction are becoming more and more central to laboring activities Interactive and cybernetic machines become a new prosthesis integrated into our bodies and minds and a lens through which to redefine our bodies and minds themselves.

The anthropology of cyberspace is really a recognition of the new human condition. Intriguingly, they use eating and ingestion to make their point. Let us start with The Matrix , a motion picture that at the turn of the century became an instant cult for the wired, Internet-oriented, dot. In the year or so, machines dominate the world. To do so they exploit human beings as a source of heat and electricity which is to say, food: In reality, humans are kept in a state of suspended animation within cocoons, deprived through wires and pipes of their life force, while dreaming of a normal life.

A group of men, aware of the situation, decide to live outside the illusion and to jeopardize the whole system to free humanity. Although the main tenet of the movie is the intrinsic similarity between the human brain and computers, there are two back-to-back scenes that appear to undermine these assumptions. Interestingly enough, both scenes focus on food.

The first one takes place in a restaurant located in the virtual reality projected on the human mind. One of the rebels is cutting a deal with an envoy of the machines to betray the rebel leader.

All he wants in exchange is to be sucked into the matrix and to abandon the sad reality of the dehumanized world, though he is fully aware the whole move is a delusion.

The two characters talk over a steak. I know that when I put it in my mouth the matrix is telling my brain that it is juicy and delicious. After nine years, you know what?

The other scene happens in the rebel warship, in the grim reality outside the matrix. Did you ever eat tastee wheat? No, but technically neither did you. Because you have to wonder, now. How do the machines really know what tastee wheat tasted like? Maybe they got it wrong. Maybe what I think tastee wheat tastes like actually tasted like oatmeal or tuna fish, that makes you wonder about lots of things.

You take chicken, for example. Maybe they could not figure out what to make chicken taste like. Which is why chicken tastes like everything. Shut up, Mouse Rebel 4: Everything the body needs.

No, it does not have everything the body needs. The dialogues point out that machines cannot possibly know what real food tastes like, and above all that they cannot convey the actual sensations that flavor memories elicit. The Matrix algorithms are not able to give the same depth and emotional value as real food recollections to neural perceptions of taste and smell, although the system is able to re-create them, and also to activate the connection between food and sex.

In the second episode of the Trilogy, The Matrix Reloaded , the Merovingian, an embodiment of the computer system, is able to give an orgasm to a woman through a slice of chocolate cake. Despite the virtual world created by the machines, however, the body seems to reaffirm its own autonomous, specific memories — in particular, gustatory and olfactory ones. In the not-too-distant future, a biotech company finds a way to ensure longer lives to all those who can afford it, providing them with organs developed from their own tissue that can substitute aging or damaged ones.

During the development of the projects the scientists realized that organs could only thrive and grow as part of bodies. As the manager of the project states: As a matter of fact, as the plot unfolds, Lincoln 6 Echo discovers he is able to ride a high-speed motorbike or to drive a boat simply because, as a clone, he was developed from the tissue of his original donor: As they say, once you learn how to ride a bike, you never forget. At least in the movie, you do not forget your food preferences either.

In one of the first scenes, Lincoln 6 Echo craves bacon at a breakfast counter, where a very unfriendly canteen lady tries to impose the foods that have been chosen for him by his creators in order to ensure his health. He is actually mirroring the likes and dislikes of the person from whom he has been cloned. You have a nutrition flag. And a little powder sugar. The power of these bodily and sensual memories is so strong that the new clones need to be conditioned with new memories in order to avoid any resurgence of the past.

It does not work, though. The body still remembers, if not consciously, in the form of dreams. It is actually after dreaming of driving a boat that Lincoln 6 Echo starts having doubts about his situation. Again, in a visit to the doctor, he expresses his malaise in terms of food, the only communication tool he can still master.

Tuesday night is tofu night, and I ask to myself: And what is tofu anyway? I want answers, and I wish there were more. Fuel for the Brain Despite the exceptions we mentioned, which interestingly use food to get their point across, most science fiction movies, books, and comic books are particularly attuned to theories that assume a fundamental similarity in the ways computers and human brains operate.

As a matter of fact, contemporary pop culture often references computers to create metaphors for our brain. Outside the realm of fiction, many scientists seem to share a similar take on mind and memory that developed into a new branch of research — cognitive psychology — during the second half of the twentieth century.

Cognitive psychologists are not primarily interested in analyzing the mind at the physiological and neural level, understanding its structure and function starting from the cell level up. In an introductive book to cognitive science, oddly enough, kitchen recipes are used as metaphors to describe how the brain operates. A recipe usually has two parts: The recipe analogy for thinking is weak, since ingredients are not representations and cooking instructions require someone to interpret them".

As psychologist Jerry Fodor elaborated in , brain operations would be based on modules, each focusing on a specific function, e. The medium within which these modules can operate can be indifferently a brain or a machine. The relevance of the research on Artificial Intelligence AI can be attributed to the spectacular advance of this discipline and to the fact that modern computers and robots are symbol-using entities, based on formal systems. Furthermore, AI reinforces the choice of cognitive psychologists to concentrate on the software of the mind rather than on its hardware Flanagan To a certain extent, humans and computers are different manifestations of the same phenomenon: According to these theories, the long-lasting mind vs.

Furthermore, the logical and rational aspects of the mind take over its emotional side since emotions are closely connected with the body and its responses to external stimuli, even if under brain control. Nonetheless, with the enormous development of neuroscience in the last 20 years, many scientists have turned their attention back to brain structures, trying to come to terms with the new discoveries about the relevance of their physical functions and dynamics Thagard Joseph LeDoux noted in his seminal work The Emotional Brain that it is not possible to separate cognition from the emotional elements of the mind.

Furthermore, LeDoux argues, the hardware, the actual structure of the brain, is non-secondary in understanding the mind, especially when it comes to emotions LeDoux It is not an easy task. One of the most influential voices in this field is the Nobel Prize recipient Gerald Edelman. In his book A Universe of Consciousness , written with Giulio Tononi, he underlines the features of the brain that point to fundamental differences with computers.

Since no two brains are identical, the overall pattern of connections in a brain can be defined in general terms, but the microscopic variability of these connections in different individuals is enormous because of their developmental history and their past experiences.

For instance, when it comes to food, although children of the same family might be genetically similar and are likely to be exposed to the same dishes, they all show their own likes and dislikes, different tastes, sometimes even diverging memories concerning the same events. Synaptic connections change, die, are created every day, and vary in each individual, affecting the way things and events are remembered Edelman and Tononi Of course, computer simulations of neural networks reveal that a man-made system can develop exceptional complexity in a short time if it is programmed to develop patterns that are beneficial to the goal it is created to carry out.

Nevertheless, the inputs the brain receives from the external world are not an unambiguous series of signals, as in the case of computers. The brain has developed functions aimed and filtering and organizing perceptions into categories, which are instrumental to our interaction with the world.

Furthermore, our perceptions and the categories we use to give them order are not neutral, impassionate, and impartial.

These dynamics are regulated by organs — sometimes defined as the limbic system — located outside the cortical areas in charge of rational thinking. The evaluation of relevance is also determined by substances e. All these elements influence the strength of synapses i. These dynamics have a great impact on learning, categorizing abilities and adaptive behaviors.

Not every item is retained in the same way, or always retrieved in the same way. The brain, like all features of living systems, is both being and becoming, its apparent stability a stability of process, not of fixed architecture. Flavors and Memories If memories are anchored to our sensual and physical experiences, we can easily understand how the connection between body and mind, and in particular between memory and food, with its flavors and smells, has become a center of interest for sociologists, anthropologists, and ethnographers, both as topics of research and as methodology Geurts ; Howes ; Sutton Outside academia, too, these themes frequently appear in various forms of pop culture all over the world.

Memory seems to play a key role especially in contemporary movies that revolve around food, a theme that in the past few years has become central in all sorts of film genres, following the growth of general interest towards food and eating in Western societies.

The evocative potential of moving images acquires a particular depth and power when cuisine and ingestion are used to convey feelings and emotions that would otherwise be difficult to express visually or verbally. It is often when women are involved that food and cooking reveal their deeper connections with memory, especially with activities that involve meal preparation, nourishing, and nurturing.

Needless to say, these chores are identified with a bodily dimension that has been historically considered not very intellectual, since it deals with the sheer survival of individuals, families, and communities, rather than with personal achievements and spiritual aspects of life.

When the lead characters are women, movies often shift towards genres such as biography, memoir, sentimental journey, and romantic exploration, where visual and narrative elements concur to put viewers in touch with the more emotional and mundane aspects of life: Both novels were adapted for the big screen as amusing and touching movies, starring the sensual Brazilian actress Sonia Braga and directed by Bruno Barreto respectively in and The character of Dona Flor in particular finds in food a conduit through which she can express her sensuality and also develop her business expertise, affirming herself as an individual.

She actually manages a cooking school, while her husband Vadinho, a gambler who is nevertheless capable to keep her sexually happy, spends all their money. When he dies of a heart attack during Carnival, Donha Flor marries the town pharmacist, a very decent man who lacks passion and sexual appetites. She soon finds herself desiring Vadinho so much that she begs a Candomblé priestess to bring his spirit back. Eventually Flor keeps them both, one to satisfy her sexual and bodily appetites, the other to give her respect and to make her a lady.

Food plays a more crucial role in the book than in the movie, but also on film some scenes remain unforgettable. Right after the death of Vadinho, she relives their passion by thinking of one of his favorite dishes, the moqueca de siri mole, a soft-shell crab stew with coconut milk and red palm oil, and the memory of the sensations that punctuated their sexual bliss carry her back to the first night after the wedding, when his mouth tasted like onion, one of the main ingredients of the recipe.

During one of her most lonely moments, she compares herself to a hot, steaming dish that no man consumes and enjoys. Isabela Oliveira Cruz is a very talented chef who is deeply in love with her husband Toninho. They own a restaurant in Bahia where she cooks while her husband works the front of the house, taking all the merit for the success of the establishment.

When she discovers him in bed with another woman, she runs away to visit a transvestite friend in San Francisco, finding a job as a teacher in a cooking school. One day, while preparing a moqueca, the smell of the malagueta pepper brings back memories of Toninho, of how he would rub some chili peppers on her lips to arouse her.

That is when she realizes she has to free herself of those memories, and also with the intervention of a Candomblé priestess she manages to set herself free. That is when her career as a chef takes off.

The flavors and scents of her dishes, reminiscent of Brazil, make her famous as a TV celebrity chef, able to excite and stimulate both men and women with her cooking. Tita actress Lumi Cavazos , brought up in the kitchen by the Indian cook Nacha, is condemned to celibacy in order to take care of her mother in her old age. Her love interest Pedro Marco Leonardi decides to get married to one of her sisters so that he can be close to her.

In the novel by Joanne Harris, Chocolate, brought to the screen by Lasse Hallström in , chocolate brings back to life a whole village suffocated by the traditionalism of the local mayor and other oppressive characters.

Vianne, an independent woman traveling around with her young daughter, is a descendant of the Mayas, and she has inherited the faculty to be able to use chocolate to treat any emotional trauma. The sweet substance comes to embody all that is passion, body, and sensuality, able to transmit feelings and recollections. Chocolate, probably for its supposed effects on women, appears in many movies, novels, and also TV commercials as the favorite substance in the fight against feminine depressive states.

However, other foods also would seem to have the power to revitalize women and the men around them: Her research for taste, texture, and technique, with the help of a cohort of unusual male friends, helps her focus on who she is and her goals as a professional, although often it seems that it is the men who know better and are more aware of what she actually needs than herself. Not all women in the kitchen appear to be so defenseless and in need of guidance. Her encounter with the sweet and disaster-prone Linguini mellows her out a bit, but she remains in charge.

Babette, a French refugee in a Danish Protestant village, decides to spend all the money she won in a lottery to offer a memorable dinner to the villagers, whose faith makes them impermeable to any sort of sensual pleasure. She does not care: In all the movies we mentioned, women appear to have access to a special connection with food, which allows them to translate their sensuality and their emotional world in pleasurable — and socially sanctioned — ways.

It is very interesting that when science fiction and action movies, frequently perceived as masculine or at least as favored by young men, focus on food and eating as narrative elements, they seldom refer to nurturing and caring.

They project this approach also on women: Their nurturing role is either secondary or totally absent, even in Storm, who is supposedly a teacher of younger, more insecure mutants. We could hardly imagine the tomb-raiding Lara Croft , played by Angelina Jolie, as a cooking woman. In the Mr. Jolie plays a killer who leads a double life, playing the devoted housewife to her husband, played by Brad Pitt, who is also an undercover killer.

In various scenes, dinners turn into tense confrontations: Could there be a better metaphor for the instability of domesticity? Men in the Kitchen Food apparently threatens masculinity in action and sci-fi movies. By the end of the movie, the main characters have forgotten all about stoves and dishes, and they are back to their tough, criminal-punishing selves. Food definitely does not constitute a significant part of their world. In other genres, though, men can express themselves freely through cooking and dishes when they are chefs or cooks.

The professionalization of food preparation safeguards their masculinity, allowing them to express feelings and connect with memories that otherwise would not be acceptable. We can find examples in movies from all over the world. While scrambling to prepare the most spectacular banquet for the king Louis XIV, on a visit to his employer at the Chantilly castle, he falls for Anne de Montausier, a fascinating dame played by Uma Thurman.

Unable to convey his passion any other way, he prepares a beautiful sugar composition with flowers for the object of his longings. For political reasons, the woman cannot accept his courtship, and the chef eventually kills himself. The movie leaves it to the viewers to decide if Vatel took his life for love, or because he was distraught by the fact that his mentor had lost him to the King during a game of cards, or because the fish he was expecting for the banquet had not arrived, as the tradition relates.

Not all movie chefs are doomed to such a gloomy destiny. Through food, cooking men often find ways to express themselves and get in contact with their loved ones. In both movies, the magnificent opening scenes picture the chefs preparing sumptuous banquets Chinese in the Ang Lee version, Mexican in the American remake , where no virtuosity is spared and unusual and exotic techniques and ingredients are displayed.

The meals, despite their goal to nurture ailing family feelings, are definitely works of art and the achievement of professionals. Once again, the chef is represented as a masculine role that struggles with its emotional overtones.

Viewers soon realize that the artist has lost his sense of taste: Only when he falls for his younger neighbor and starts preparing school lunches for her daughter is he able to recover his sensual abilities, while reconnecting at the same time with his inner, most delicate feelings. Despite his age and his ability to connect with his sensory memories and to express nurture and love through food, he is still undoubtedly a man. Male chefs are also safely allowed to use food to express their longings for their far-away homelands.

Curiously, two of the most renowned emigrant chefs in recent films are Italian: Despite the different plots and characters, the two chefs are both interpreters of a culinary tradition that is described to viewers as full of care, passion, and sensual involvement.

The memories of flavors and dishes from their childhoods give both a sense of direction in a new land, respectively Germany and America, where not everybody is able to appreciate their skills. Sandler plays an award-winning chef who rediscovers his passion for cooking and his skills, almost forgotten because of the stress of fame and his failed marriage, through the straightforward sensuality of his home caretaker, played by Paz Vega.

The celebrity chef played by Chow falls into disgrace and manages to get back to the top only with the help of an ugly, but effective woman, who creates a new sort of meatballs that become all the rage and with whom he eventually falls in love.

Of course, when gay men cook in movies all bets are off and masculinity is no longer an issue. With them, food preparation reveals all its nurturing and poignant undertones. The Turkish filmmaker Ferzan Ozpetek often deals with gay characters whose emotional lives and memories are expressed through food.

In His Secret Life Le Fate Ignoranti, , Michele Stefano Accorsi is the center of a whole community of unusual characters, including gay men, a transsexual, a prostitute, and an AIDS victim, who gather every week around the table, and for whom cooking and feeding each other constitutes an act of resistance and a declaration of love for life.

In Facing Windows La Finestra di Fronte, , Giovanna Giovanna Mezzogiorno , an aspiring baker, meets an old man suffering from amnesia who turns out to be a Holocaust survivor whose suffering was compounded by his repressed homosexuality. The man turns out to be a expert pastry chef who, by making cakes and desserts with the younger woman, succeeds in reconnecting with his past and his memories, even if only briefly, while giving to Giovanna a new sense of herself and of her femininity.

These works focusing on food, although from different genres, share a model of human being where the body and the mind are not separated, but integrated in a functioning whole. Emotions and sensations are not considered as better or worse than rational faculties, just as a different, complementary dimension of human inner life. They propose a totally different position from the computer-related movies we analyzed previously, where the body is a mere material support for higher functions that — autonomous from the flesh — can be easily shared with machines and computers.

This deep contrast between two different conceptions of the human experience emerges in different instances of pop culture, which we know plays an important role in disseminating and naturalizing concepts and ideas, values and anxieties. The presence of diverging, even contradictory, approaches to food points to the fact that an ongoing negotiation is taking place among different ideologies to assert their take on human life, the mind, and its connection with the body.

The political and social implications go well beyond pop culture. Sell It to the Brain! A new branch of neuroscience is being developed in collaboration with sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and philosophers: Social relations are still to be fully analyzed from the point of view of neuroscience: This line of research is crucial to understand any collective behavior, including food consumption. For instance, it could allow new insights into how children are socialized into eating, how likes and dislikes develop, and how we try to experiment with new ingredients or dishes.

We also witness the rise of a new interest in the emotional dynamics of the brain to assess the relations that humans build with the objects they acquire and employ in everyday life. Design, marketing, and advertising are paying new attention to this dimension of human psychology and culture. In his books, Norman puts forth the intriguing hypothesis that appealing things, able to elicit intense and positive emotions, actually work better Norman and He often uses kitchen design objects as examples, but the same line of reasoning can be applied to food packaging, arrangements of food on dishes, and produce itself.

Norman argues that design and use of objects are influenced by strong emotional components. He actually identifies three different aspect of design, each of them responding to a different brain dynamic: The three levels also differ in their relations to time: At this level, self-esteem and identification processes play a key role, as do customer service and interpersonal interactions.

Kitchen objects and tools can shed some light on these matters. They may be bought just because they are cute and then never be used.

This is often the case, for instance, with copper pots and pans, which usually end up as decorations because they are hard to keep clean and in good condition. At the same time they satisfy intellectual needs: On the other hand, expensive pots and pans can be bought for their functionality and usability. In this case their quality not only satisfies behavioral requirements, but also ensures durable enjoyment for people who actually cook and can use them with pleasure over and over.

Many Western kitchens are full of gizmos of all kinds, either received as presents or actually bought, whose main value is definitively reflective. The relevance of these factors on food consumption is evident. Its format and size should interact with the behavioral habits of consumers, without challenging but sending clear messages about its content and its use. Everyday products should more or less fall in this category, underlining their utility, their easy usage, and their performance.

The same category of products can play on different levels. For example, bottled water can be very straightforward: On the other hand, certain exclusive and refined bottles are sold only in restaurants. In this case the aesthetic pleasure is paired with the reflective enjoyment of something supposedly rare.

Luxury products have to appeal at a very intellectual level to be successful. Very often the consumption of these products presupposes some sort of acquired taste: Other high-end products also require knowledge: Furthermore, a certain amount of information — regarding origins, fabrication techniques, and the correct mode of consumption — is necessary to distinguish one product from another.

The reflective aspect of this kind of enjoyment is obvious. In this case, visceral and behavioral values are not relevant, since consumers are not primarily attracted by the appearance or the usability of the products. Connoisseurs would not pick their wines or cheeses based on packaging or labels. On the other hand, a supermarket shopper would probably be influenced by these elements and also by other factors such as price and convenience.

Similarly, good advertising must be able to get in tune with our brain dynamics if it wants to prompt us to buy particular brands du Plessis, Advertisers try to find the best ways to access the emotional functions that determine value and action. Emotions, we have seen, feed into and mold our thoughts, including the conscious ones that we like to consider completely rational. Since emotions solicit our attention, advertisers have to find ways to stimulate our interest, and to do so they attune the communication tools precisely to those mechanisms that in our brain control attention, excitement, and pleasure.

So doing, advertisers also ensure that memories they create are durable and positive. We have seen how the value systems in the brain are able to reinforce and stabilize synaptic connections, increasing the strength of certain memories because the neurons involved become more likely to fire under future similar stimuli.

But this is not enough: So provided the advertisement is not so disastrously obscure that it fails to evoke the brand concept at all For example, if a child is emotionally attached to Mickey Mouse and Mickey is shown together with a certain brand of cereal, the child is likely to attach positive feelings to that cereal. Commercials directed to adults often work on the same principles.

Hence the abundance of more or less explicit sexual undertones in advertising: First the sexually charged image captures our attention, and then the arousal that it provokes helps to reinforce the memory and the pleasurable feelings connected to it.

Other products and brands target more behavioral and reflective levels of memory, to use the terminology we have already introduced. This is the case for commercials that depict lifestyles that are perceived as positive and desirable. This strategy goes well beyond the printed ad or the TV commercial: For instance, alcoholic beverages often throw A-list parties in fashionable bars or clubs to accentuate their hipness.

Of course, consumers cannot be considered as helpless dupes without defense against the shrewd promotional techniques of advertising. As marketers are well aware, myriad elements interact with the actual effectiveness of commercials: On the one hand, products are created for certain segments of the market, supposedly characterized by a defined set of preferences determined by social status, cultural capital, engrained and acquired habits, and desire for distinction Bourdieu On the other hand, consumers continue to show an unbridled creativity in negotiating their relationship with markets and products, even when they appear to have no power.

As French scholar Michel de Certeau pointed out: It develops an atmosphere of tensions, and often of violence, for which is provides symbolic balances, contracts of compatibility and compromises, all more or less temporary.

The tactics of consumption, the ingenious ways in which the weak make use of the strong, thus lend a political dimension to everyday practices. We have examined different aspects of the role food plays in the complex relationship between mind and body, as reflected in pop culture items such as movies and advertising. We get a picture of human subjects whose rational function and memories are closely connected with sensations and emotions, practices, and desires, and whose mental and physical processes are more related than we would care to admit.

Actually, we have noticed how this approach, leaning on contemporary research on the brain, is still contrasted by forces that refer to a disembodied human spirit or alternatively to similarities between the mind and machines.

Gli esperti ci dicono che negli ultimi anni il nostro peso è aumentato in maniera vertiginosa perché siamo diventati più sedentari e perché consumiamo più cibo. In altre parole, la gente ingrassa perché assume più calorie di quante gliene servano. Il ragionamento fila, almeno in teoria.

Nessuno dice che una persona diventa alcolizzata semplicemente perché beve più alcol di quello che riesce a metabolizzare: Invece ci accontentiamo di dire che le persone obese sono grasse semplicemente perché assumono più calorie di quelle che consumano, senza chiederci il perché.

Le calorie, un dogma fuorviante Una caloria è una caloria: Il conteggio delle calorie si basa su questo principio da decenni. È il fondamento delle etichette dei cibi, a cui molte persone ricorrono per compiere le proprie scelte alimentari. Ma se invece fosse che questo approccio da laboratorio ci ha indotto erroneamente a pensare di sapere tutto di diete e nutrizione? Uno studio realizzato nella vita reale ha portato alla luce alcune di queste false credenze.

Per sei anni quarantadue scimmie sono state nutrite in condizioni controllate con due diete diverse, entrambe con lo stesso apporto calorico. Gli ingredienti erano identici, tranne che per il contenuto di grassi: Le diete erano pianificate in modo tale che il peso corporeo si mantenesse costante, ma le scimmie del secondo gruppo sono ingrassate accumulando il triplo di pericoloso grasso viscerale e sviluppando un profilo insulinico molto peggiore vale a dire che il glucosio nel sangue non veniva smaltito in fretta.

Le calorie del fast food hanno conseguenze energetiche molto diverse rispetto alle calorie ottenute da cereali integrali, frutta e verdura. Per cibi come le mandorle la stima delle calorie supera di oltre il 30 per cento il dato reale, e sulle etichette con i valori nutrizionali la legge concede un margine di errore pari al 20 per cento.

Gli slogan salutistici riportati sulle confezioni vengono esaminati con il massimo scrupolo dagli organi di controllo, ma in molti paesi la vigilanza sulle etichette nutrizionali è incredibilmente trascurata. Calcoli recenti hanno innalzato la media di riferimento a calorie per le donne e per gli uomini.

Troppe, a detta di molti: Numerosi studi dimostrano che solo una persona su sette si avvicina a una stima esatta delle calorie di cui ha bisogno. Oggi in America i ristoranti e i cinema sono obbligati a dichiarare il conteggio delle calorie sui menu: Il vitello grasso e la dieta da calorie Jerome era uno dei ventiquattro studenti volontari che nel presero parte a uno studio assai particolare condotto nel Québec. Era il lavoro estivo dei sogni: E lo avrebbero pure pagato, tutto in nome della scienza.

Il ragazzo aveva superato la selezione dimostrando di non avere una storia famigliare di obesità o diabete ed era di peso e altezza normali. Come tutti gli altri soggetti dello studio aveva un fisico asciutto: Ogni singolo pezzo di cibo che metteva nel piatto veniva pesato. La dieta prevedeva il 50 per cento di carboidrati, il 35 per cento di grassi e il 15 per cento di proteine.

Dopo i cento giorni della dieta da calorie, in pratica senza fare attività fisica, era aumentato di 5,5 kg. In termini di chili guadagnati, Jerome era il penultimo in classifica: Il solo studente che aveva subito un aumento di peso pressoché identico al suo era Vincent, che era nato nella sua stessa città, aveva frequentato la stessa scuola e possedeva gli stessi geni: Jerome e Vincent erano gemelli omozigoti.

Certe coppie avevano trasformato le calorie non solo in grasso, ma anche in muscolatura aggiuntiva. Inoltre i depositi adiposi sembravano concentrarsi negli stessi punti per entrambi i gemelli: Questo studio classico, in cui gli studenti furono sovralimentati come topi di laboratorio, oggi solleverebbe numerose questioni etiche eppure non tuteliamo in alcun modo gli attori che ingrassano per esigenze di copione, come Bradley Cooper, che per American Sniper ha messo su 20 kg ed è stato pagato milioni di dollari.

I miei studi su migliaia di gemelli del Regno Unito e altri studi effettuati in tutto il mondo dimostrano che i gemelli omozigoti — i quali, come detto, sono cloni genetici — sono molto più simili fra loro per quanto riguarda il peso e il grasso corporeo rispetto ai gemelli eterozigoti, che condividono solo metà dei geni. Inoltre abbiamo scoperto che le somiglianze si estendono ad altre caratteristiche correlate, come la quantità di massa magra e massa grassa e le parti del corpo in cui si formano i depositi adiposi.

Componente in cui rientra il fatto che alcuni cibi ci piacciano oppure no, per esempio verdure, snack salati, spezie e aglio. Le nostre ricerche sui gemelli hanno dimostrato che anche la frequenza con cui si fa esercizio fisico ha una forte componente genetica. I geni e il corpo cospirano contro di loro non appena cercano di bruciare le calorie. Un esempio era quello degli abitanti delle isole del Pacifico, che navigarono per migliaia di miglia in oceano aperto alla ricerca di cibo e di terre più ospitali.

Senza dubbio molti perirono nella traversata. Wednesday, January 03, Vaccination - The Hidden Truth [ Video: Viera Scheibner a PhD researcher , five medical doctors, and other researchers, reveal what is really going on in relation to illness and vaccines. Ironically, the important facts come from the orthodox medicine's own peer-reviewed research. With so much government and medical promotion of vaccination for prevention of disease, the video is clearly devoted to presenting the other side of the issue that parents and others are not being told.

Saturday, September 08, Just like Sheehan, she is a brilliant strategist, fearless and driven when comes to protecting and fighting cruel and unethical behavior towards animals. Despite, or rather thanks to, her controversial methods of exposing those cruelties, she gets a lot of Media attention. Sunday, November 25, Antidepressants and School Shootings, Suicide, Addiction [ Suicide, homicide even to the point of school shootings. Best Case scenario you only experience Withdrawal and Addiction.

Wednesday, December 19, So far, extensive testing indicates that its mother was a normal human but its father was, in all probability, something other than entirely human. Monday, July 14, Elenin Comet Dwarf Star. Amy Winehouse Tragic Death. Halcyon Daze No Exposed. This section is reproduced for you by kind permission of Blake Publishing.

I must have been a teacher's nightmare when I was at school. When other children were satisfied with the teacher's answer, I was the one who asked, 'Why? This did not stop when I left school — it got worse. Teachers' replies were generally the stock answers that they had received when they were at school. Things change, and I, for one, needed up-to-the-minute, well-thought- out answers.

The problem is that when you leave school the first of your adult problems surfaces, the business of earning a living. That nasty five-letter word that you never really place any importance on at school rears its ugly head - money. Having to earn money puts an immediate brake on real learning, because we're forced into concentrating on learning our job so that we can feed ourselves and get from one end of the week to the other.

That, for most people, is the way it stays for the rest of their lives. Unless of course you become older, with more time on your hands, or you become a millionaire, or both. You have no time to think about the fringe elements of life or to trace them to any decent conclusions.

The powers that be probably like it that way no time to question anything. It has been said for years that money is the root of all evil, and that's right. If it weren't for money there would be no drug problems. If people were not earning money from selling it, they would not push it. That in turn would free up our police force, because crime connected to drugs would cease. In fact, you would have no new addictions.

It might be a good idea, right now, if those in power made centres all over the country and supplied drugs for free. This would stop pushers immediately, which would prevent young people and even children getting hooked - so your six-year-old need never come into contact with drugs. For those already hooked it's too late. Let's try to save the innocent. Even judges have said this would be a good idea, so why hasn't this implemented? The only conclusion you can draw is that people in high places would cease to make money from it.

If the government really wanted to free up the roads to stop the pollution that traffic causes, they should never have privatised the railways. If everyone in the country paid than the cost of a TV licence the railway could be run for and if the railway was free, more people would use it instead of their cars. But no, what will happen is one of two things. The government will either do as the continentals have build toll booths, which will cost billions, or they will put petrol up so high that it makes the railways look cheap.

Neither of these will stop pollution. It'll just mean the government will be able to thieve more money from us when we travel. And pollution will carry on getting worse. What happened to the billions of taxpayers' money that was used to drill for the then promised oil bonanza from the North Sea?

We didn't see oil prices drop! In fact we've only seen them rise. The price of oil in England is almost the highest in the world. All I ask is for your patience. It all has relevance to the wider picture. We humans, for example, have always been told that gold is a precious metal and we never question it.

It is not precious. It is in everything. It's even in seawater. Governments use gold to underpin their currency. Startling new evidence is slowly coming to the fore that could stand the world on its head. In the early s an archaeologist called William Flinders Petrie climbed Mount Horeb in Iraq and discovered what was first thought to be a temple. Now it is believed it was where the large-scale smelting of a particular metal took place - that metal being gold. Also found at this site was a large amount of a strange white powder.

The site was thought to be at least , years old. Now it may be that we haven't heard about this because it doesn't fit in with the consensus of archaeologists on when man could melt certain metals.

However, it is more likely to be because of the way it was smelted. But it appears that at Mount Horeb they used heat close to the temperature of the Sun's surface - which is approximately 6, degrees C. To get those kinds of temperatures 8, years ago was a feat in itself. But this next piece of information is mind-boggling. They were not content just to melt the gold, they went one step further and almost vapourised it. Today if we want to analyse a metal to find out what it consists of, it is burnt at a temperature close to that of the Sun for a period of 15 to 20 seconds.

In that 20 seconds, a chart will tell the scientist exactly what elements the metal consists of. At least, that's what most scientists think. However, buried in red tape, and only just coming to light, is the work of a Russian scientist, who asked; 'Why burn for only 15 to 20 seconds? Nothing happened at 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 40 seconds, 50, 60, or 69 but at 70 seconds, the apparatus then registered elements from the palladium group - platinum and other precious metals - all from an ordinary piece of iron.

Although amazing in itself, the really incredible thing is what happens to the metal, especially when gold is melted this way. At a second burn there is suddenly a bright light, like a thousand flash bulbs going off, and all that is left behind in the crucible is a white powder. Another amazing thing is that the crucible has very little weight and so does the powder.

If you then take the powder out of crucible, the weight returns to the crucible. Now I'm scientist, but that sure sounds like what is known as 'super-conductivity' to me. So, why did a race of people 8, years ago need super conductivity? What did they need the white powder for? If a heavy stone crucible loses its weight with this white powder in it, could you put this powder on large stones and move them to build large structures with ease, perhaps while building pyramids?

Pyramids are by their very name 'fire begotten'; derived from the Latin word pyre meaning fire. To find out the answer to this question, it's perhaps better to tell you about the civilisation responsible. It has always been assumed that the Sumerians were the first civilisation on Earth. However, since the dig at Mount Horeb by Petrie, it appears they were not.

Found at the site were thousands of what looked like earthenware rolling-pins with writings around their circumferences. The writing was like no other known to man, and has taken many years to decipher. The stories they tell are chilling but also exciting. The one thing about finding pottery scrolls is that you have the master dye, unlike books, which could be changed over the years. All that was needed was for them to roll the scroll onto wet clay then decipher what they saw.

The civilisation called itself the Anunnaki. They were as civilised as we are. They had schools, lawyers, books and fashion shows. The scrolls told the story of a whole civilisation, and its way of life.

The civilisation spoke of making Cro Magnon man from Neanderthal man. They were not happy with the results, and their leaders argued they should destroy them, which they did by way of a great flood, saving only a few.

Those who survived were bred with the Anunnaki women to make Homo Sapiens, or thinking man. God said, 'let us make man in our image, in our likeness'. In the Old Testament Genesis account it states, 'male and female created he them and he called their name Adam'.

It may well be that they were bred by the Anunnaki to be the Earthly Rulers, that they were the beginning of the blood royal, the Holy Grail. Who were these people! If this is correct, no wonder they've never found the missing link. At this point I suddenly had a thought.

Why do human beings have to shield their eyes with their hand to see on a sunny day! No other animal has to squint so why do we! You don't see a horse or a cow squinting do you!

A bird which flies high up in the sky where the Sun shines the' brightest doesn't even use its eyelids until it goes to sleep. A polar bear doesn't suffer with snow blindness caused by the reflection of the Sun that shines even brighter with the glare. When a deer or rabbit gets caught in your car headlights, they do not even blink let alone squint. Because they have adapted to living on Earth. Cro-Magnon man had a large forehead, which shielded his eyes; he would not have had to squint either.

Evolution doesn't go backwards does it? If we were from Earth we would still have a large protruding forehead to protect our eyes. Or our eyes themselves would have adapted by now.

We must have come from a planet that was a little further away from its Sun. Are we the descendants of the Anunnaki! In the Old Testament we can read stories of people living until they are or years old. This has been put down to translating errors by those who collated the Bible, with the Church merely saying, they meant to say 80 or 90 years old. According to the Anunnaki, to rule over their subjects, their leaders needed longevity.

Let's face it, if you get older you usually get wiser. Eight hundred years' worth is a lot of wisdom. To ensure this was the case, the Anunnaki fed their leaders bread and wine. Red wine as we know today, is very good for you; a glass a day can unclog your veins and keep them clear. The bread the Anunnaki fed their leaders was made from a white powder made from the burning of the gold.

Eating the bread made from the powdered gold, according to the Anunnaki, made their leaders more intelligent and made them live much longer. Now the Catholic Church must have known about this, because they still give the bread and wine in their Holy Communion ceremonies.

One thing we can all be sure of today, is that there will be no gold powder in their bread. We know that the last person to be fed this bread in a ceremony was the second Pharaoh. If that were the case, he marched his people about 50 miles out of their way, and they would not have been pleased.

It is more likely he went up Mount Horeb, which is en route and the story then fits what happened to him there. The Ten Commandments were no problem for Moses. Having been brought up by a Pharaoh he would have known the inaugural ceremony of the Pharaohs, in which they had to repeat after the high priest: I have not committed adultery.

All Moses did was change the first words to Thou shalt, instead of, I Have, and it was all over bar the carving. The ordinary Israelites would not have been aware of the inaugural words so would not have been any the wiser. The interesting part of this is the burning bush.

When you arc gold for 70 seconds at Sun temperature, it has been found that a pencil standing on its end right next to the flash, scorches but does not fall over.

What did Moses witness on top of Mount Horeb? Was it the burning of gold, when he saw the blinding light and spoke to God through the burning bush that didn't actually burn? Did Moses make a mistake and think that the Anunnaki was God or did he know the Anunnaki as his creators so naturally thought of them as his God? On Moses' return to his people from the Mount, he sees them worshipping a golden calf and, according to the Bible, becomes angry, burns the golden calf to dust and makes them eat it.

He then smashes the tablets of stone, throws them in the Ark of the Covenant, and off they go. The Bible makes it sound as though Moses was punishing the Israelites by making them eat the calf. It could be that he was actually turning them all into leaders.

You actually smelt gold - you don't burn it. But it sounds as if that is exactly what he did. The only way of burning gold to a powder is in 70 seconds at the temperature of the Sun's surface, and only then if the gold is very thin. Otherwise you need to maintain that high temperature for seconds.

It is interesting to note that the Bible puts all the emphasis on the Ten Commandments which, as we now know, were easy for Moses to create. Could the Bible be taking our attention away from the importance of the Ark of the Covenant and what it really held within? Remember it took at least four people to lift and eight to carry the Ark of the Covenant. They were told not to touch the sides, only the handles. Did the Bible conveniently get the spelling wrong? Could it be the Arc of the Covenant?

As in electrical arc? Is it the arc that melts the gold, with which they make the bread for higher intelligence? Is this why it's been hidden from us for thousands of years? To get the kind of temperature necessary to almost vaporise gold you would need a capacitor, and that sounds very much what the Ark of the Covenant was. It is a fact that our brains contain a white substance.

Gold is the best conductor of electricity. Our brains receive messages by electronic impulses which travel through this white substance. Scientists also know that something in your brain is super-conducting but as yet they don't know what. If we were all very intelligent, there wouldn't be any workers. We'd all be leaders. The people responsible for putting a value on gold had to be somebody who knew gold's ultimate potential or capabilities.

To the Anunnaki it was more than prized, they needed it for their way of life and probably their very existence. They could not have been from this planet, because they were too advanced for that time.

So could it be they arrived from somewhere to find that the inhabitants of planet Earth are Neanderthal - not even intelligent enough to work for them. Perhaps they then set about upgrading them to Homo Sapiens and, eventually, succeeded. They would then have needed leaders to keep order, and perhaps they fed these leaders with the white powdered gold.

The Homo Sapiens would then have been taught that gold is precious and that it needed to be mined. When the Homo Sapiens had mined it, their leaders could hoard it in vast quantities.

Once the process was in motion, it would be able to run by itself. Not, perhaps, forever, but for at least a few thousand years or so. All that would be needed would be to give the Homo Sapiens a helping hand occasionally, and you would have a mining community that takes care of itself, doesn't need paying and doesn't even know who its boss is.

If you are an Anunnaki, and you live for years, you don't have to wait many generations to collect your rewards. Like gathering the honey from the bees, one day the bosses will be coming back to harvest the gold, which is kept in nice convenient little heaps like at Fort Knox, ready for collection.

If you asked anybody on this planet why we prize such a common metal as gold, they could not tell you. There is no reason; most gold just sits there collecting dust.

The Anunnaki's system would continue to operate unhindered. They gave us a way of life that suited them, not necessarily us, but we knew no different. If we are looking for answers to the thousands of questions this raises, the answers have to lie with the Anunnaki themselves. Where did they come from? And, just as important, where did they go? They certainly existed, and we know this because of the scrolls and their writings. Some of these are in the British Museum, along with vials of the white powder made from the gold, although the latter is not on public display.

To hide a secret as big as this, you have to be in complete control of the evidence. According to their scrolls, the Anunnaki must have had a long-term objective when they start talking about changing Neanderthal into Cro-Magnon man, then into Homo Sapiens. This is powerful stuff; this is no ordinary race of people we're talking about. We're talking about manipulating DNA. The idea of anybody knowing about such things at that time is difficult to comprehend.

Then, when this race of people are successful, seeding two Homo Sapiens who they name Adam and Eve, through to Abraham, Moses and Jesus this is mind blowing. It is a strong possibility that the Anunnaki will soon come back for their gold. Can you imagine if the Anunnaki are doing this all round the universe?

Upgrading life forms so that they can gather gold for them? Will there soon come a time when we realise that we needed the gold for our own technical evolution, and it'll be too late to save any of it? The Europeans did the same thing to the native Americans, the native Australians, the Africans, and many others.

When will we be paying them back for the gold we took? Nor will the Anunnaki be paying us back. With so many UFO sightings since the war, the Anunnaki could be here sooner rather than later. The way all this information came to light really intrigued me.

When I first spoke to Laurence Gardner, a genealogist and author of Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, I was amazed to learn that the book was a by-product of his being commissioned by a European prince to trace his family tree. He began the laborious job of tracing the Prince's ancestors back through the ages until he reached a point where he felt the need to confront the prince with the question, 'Do you know where this is all leading? When Laurence had finished the work for the Royal he decided to write the book.

However he became so intrigued by his findings he could not stop at that, and carried on investigating Jesus' bloodline, and produced his second book, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, which led a trail through from Jesus to Moses, Abraham and Adam and Eve. An interesting point that this raises is that the Bible states that Jesus' father Joseph was a carpenter. However, this is not what the original text of the Bible states.

What was actually said was that Joseph was a Master of the Craft. Anyone who knows a little of modern Freemasonry will know the term 'the craft' and it has nothing to do with wood.

What the Bible was actually telling us before the Church got hold of it was that Joseph was just one of a long line of highly trained metallurgists. The only people that could be metallurgists at that time were priests and royalty and you would need to be a metallurgist to be able to convert gold into white powder. To add more weight to Laurence's work if that's possible is the work of the pioneering researcher David Hudson, an American dirt farmer.

Now according to David, the difference between dirt farmers and ordinary farmers is that the dirt farmer has to make his own soil from pulverising rock. In he was doing an analysis of natural products in the area where he was farming. This high-sodium soil, which looks like chocolate ice cream on the ground, is just crunchy black.

It crunches when you walk on it. Water will not penetrate this soil. Water will not leech the sodium out of the ground. It's called black alkali. David was aware that it was possible to leech the sodium from the soil with sulphuric acid. Neighbouring his farm was a copper mine whose waste product was sulphuric acid.

He was able to obtain as much as he needed as long as he moved it himself. He eventually administered between tons per acre over his land. This penetrated 3 or 4 inches into the ground. When he irrigated, the soil would froth and foam due to the action of the sulphuric acid. What it did was to change black alkali into white alkali, which was water-soluble.

Within two years he was able to grow crops. Evidently it is very important to have enough calcium in the soil in the form of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate will act as a buffer for the acid in the soil. If you do not have enough calcium, the acidity in the soil goes down.

David said, 'It is important when you are putting all these amendments to your soil that you understand what is in your soil, how much iron there is, how much calcium and so on. In doing the analysis of these natural products David was coming across a 'material consisting of no one knew quite what, It seemed more abundant in one area so they decided to begin there. Using chemistry he dissolved the material in a solution and it became blood red.

Yet when he precipitated this material out chemically by using a reductant of powdered zinc, the material would come out as a black precipitant just like it was supposed to if it were a 'noble' element. With a noble element, if you chemically bring it out of acid, it won't re-dissolve in the acid. After he precipitated this material out of the black he took the material and dried it.

At the time David had no drying furnace so he just took it outside in the warm Arizona sunshine which, he says, was degrees at 5 per cent humidity, so it really dried fast. Then a strange thing happened. After the material dried, it exploded. But this was no normal explosion. It just went poof! It was neither an explosion, nor an implosion; all the material had gone in a flash as if 50, flash bulbs had gone off all at one time.

So David took a new pencil and stood it on end next to the material as it was drying. When the material detonated, it burned the pencil about 30 per cent but did not knock the pencil over.

Whatever this stuff was, David thought, it was wild. He discovered if he dried the material away from sunlight, it not explode. He then took some of the powder that had dried away from the sunlight, and using a crucible reductionvessel made of porcelain, he mixed the powdered material with lead and flux, and heated it until the lead melted. When you do this, the metals that are heavier than lead stay in the lead and those that are lighter float out.

This material settled to the bottom of the lead just as if it was gold and silver. It seemed to be denser than lead and it was separated from it. Yet when he took this material and put it on a bone ash cupel, the lead soaked into the cupel and left a bead of gold and silver. The strange thing was, Dave could take the bead and hit it with a hammer and shatter it, like glass.

There is no known alloy of gold and silver that is not soft. Gold and silver dissolve in each other readily and form a solid solution. Both are soft elements so any alloy made from them will be soft and ductile. David told them, 'Something's going on here that we don't understand. Something unusual is happening,' David took the beads of gold and silver back to his laboratory and separated them chemically.

All he had left was a quantity of black stuff. He then took this back to the commercial laboratories and they told him it was iron, silica and aluminium.

He told them it couldn't be iron, silica and aluminium. Firstly you can't dissolve it in any acids or any bases once it is totally dry. It doesn't dissolve in fuming sulphuric acid, it doesn't dissolve in sulphuric nitric acid, and it doesn't dissolve in hydrochloric nitric acid. Even gold dissolves in that, yet it won't dissolve this black stuff. David decided to hire a PhD at Cornell University who considered himself an expert on precious elements.

He paid the doctor to go to Arizona to see the problem for himself. He told David he had a machine back at Cornell that could analyse down to parts per billion. He said, 'If you let me take this material back to Cornell I'll tell you exactly what you have, if it's anything above iron we will find it.

When they arrived back and tested the material he told David, 'You have iron, silica and aluminium. They were able to remove all of the silica, all of the iron and all of the aluminium. Yet they still had 98 per cent of the sample that was pure nothing. By now, more than a little frustrated, David said, 'I can hold this in my hand, I can weigh it, I can perform chemistry with it.

That has to be something. It is not nothing. Neither had he offered to pay David back. So I'm going back to do the work myself. He went back to Phoenix totally disillusioned with academia. He was neither impressed with the PhDs or the money they charged. He discovered whilst at Cornell that they work students to generate papers, but the papers say nothing.

The government however pays them for every paper they write, so they get their money based on the amount of papers they turn out. They all say the same thing: David was in no way about to give in, and began asking around the Phoenix area where he found a man who was a spectroscopist who had studied in West Germany at the Institute for Spectroscopy.

He had also been a technician for a Lab Test company in Los Angeles, which actually built spectroscopic equipment. He was also the man who blueprinted the machines, and designed them, constructed them, then took them to the field and made them work. David thought, here is a good man. This is not just a technician. Here is a man who knows how the machine works. The Soviet Academy of Science published it. For those who have never performed spectroscopy, it involves taking a carbon electrode that is cupped at the top.

You then put the powder on that electrode; you bring the other electrode down above it, which creates an arc. In about 15 seconds, the carbon at this high temperature burns away, the electrode's gone and your sample's gone. All normal laboratories in the USA and possibly right around the world are doing this, then giving a full and final result after only a 15 second burn. As you know from driving a car, as long as there is water in the motor of your car the temperature of the car engine will never get hotter than the temperature of water.

If you just heated the water on the stove in a pan, you know that the pan never gets hotter than the boiling temperature of water until the water is gone. Once all the water is gone, the temperature skyrockets very fast. Now, it is hard to fathom how something with as high a temperature as iron could be just like water to these elements, but it is. Soviet Academy of Sciences, this is the length of time we had to burn the sample.

It was a huge machine. It took up the whole garage area. It was about 30 feet long and about 8 or 9 feet high. So, at the end of 15 seconds, we were getting nothing. Twenty seconds, 25 seconds, 30 seconds, 35 seconds, 40 seconds - still nothing. Forty-five seconds, 50 seconds, 55 seconds, 60 seconds, 65 seconds, but if you looked in through the coloured glass, sitting there on the carbon electrode was this little ball of white material.

There was still something in there. And after the palladium, platinum began to read. After the platinum, rhodium began to read. After rhodium, ruthenium began to read. After the ruthenium, then iridium began to read and after the iridium, osmium began to read.

I had heard of platinum, but what were these other elements? Well, there are six platinum group elements in the periodic table, not just platinum.

They didn't find out about them at the same time, so they have been added one at a time. Then you say to yourself "Gee, these are important materials, aren't they? When you bring it out, it contains one-third of one ounce per ton of all the precious elements.

We checked our analysis, which we ran for two-and -a-half years, over and over. We checked every spectral line. We checked every potential on interference; we checked every aspect.

We wanted exact matches. This work wasn't an indication that these elements were there. These elements were there and they were there in beacoup amounts. They were saying, "Hey stupid man, pay attention! We are trying to show you something. But they were there in such huge amounts, I said, "Golly, how can they be there in these quantities and no one knew it? It was two-and-a-half years of spectral analysis, running this material every day. And the man actually sent me away when they read because he could not believe it either.

He worked on it another two months before he called me up and said, "Dave, you are right". That is how sceptical he was about it. He couldn't apologise to me. He is a German researcher with German pride, so he had his wife call and apologise to me.

He was actually written up in the spectroscopic journals as having proven the existence of these elements in natural materials in the south-western United States. They're not the kind of journals that you and I would ever get to read, but I actually saw the journals and he was written up.

They had no idea where this stuff was coming from, how we were producing it, what concentrations we had gone through or anything. They had analysed just this small amount of powder. The crazy thing about it was that all we had done was to remove the silica and send the other stuff in.

They were pretty unbelievable numbers. After we had come at this in every way we knew, in order to disprove it, I decided all we had to do was throw money at this problem, because money solves everything, right?

So, at 69 seconds, I stopped the burn. I let the machine cool down and I took a pocket knife and dug that little bead out of the top of the electrode. When you shut off the arc, it absorbs down into the carbon and you have to dig down into the carbon to get the little bead of metal.

They made a precious metal analysis of this bead. I got a report back: Yet, according to neutron activation, which analysed the nucleus itself, there were no precious elements detected. This made absolutely no sense at all. There had to be an explanation here. Either this material had been converted to another element or it was in a form that we didn't understand yet. So I decided I had to get more information on it. He's the man that Motorola and Sperry used in the State of Arizona to handle their waste water problems.

He has worked with all the rare earths, he has worked with all the man-made elements. Coincidentally, I went to him to have him separate six elements; four of those were the elements he had never worked on.

He said "You know, Mr Hudson, I have heard this story before. All my life and I'm a native Arizonan, too - I heard this story about these precious elements. I am very impressed with the way you have gone about this, with the systematic way you have approached it.

I cannot accept any money because if I accept money from you I have to write you a written report. All I have to sell is my reputation. All I have to sell is my credibility. I'm a certified expert witness in the state of Arizona in metallurgical separation systems. When I can tell you where you are wrong, I'll give you a written report.

If this got rid of the curse, if this just got the thing answered once and for all, it would be worth it. Do it, get on with it. We are educated; we are taught to do the chemical separation of the material and then send it for instrumental confirmation. The example I use is rhodium because it has a unique colour in the chloride solution. It is a cranberry colour, almost like the colour of grape juice. There is no other element that produces the same colour in chloride solution.

When my rhodium was separated from all the other elements, it produced that colour of chloride. The last procedure you do to separate the material out is to neutralise the acid solution, and it precipitates out of solution as a red-brown dioxide. It is heated under a controlled atmosphere to degrees for an hour, and that creates the anhydrous dioxide. Then you hydro-reduce that under a controlled atmosphere to get the element, and then you anneal away the excess hydrogen. Then we filtered that out.

We heated it under oxygen for an hour in a tube furnace, then we hydro-reduced it to this grey-white powder, exactly the colour rhodium should be as an element. Then we heated it up to 1, degrees under argon to anneal away the material, and it turned snow-white. Now this wasn't expected. This just isn't what is supposed to happen.

I'm going to cool it down. I'm going to take one third of the sample and put it into a sealed vial. I'm going to put the rest of the sample back onto the tube furnace and heat it up under oxygen, cool it back down, purge it with inert gas, and heat it back up under hydrogen to reduce away the oxides. I'll cool that down to the grey-white powder. I'll cool down that grey-white powder. I'll take half of that and put it into another sealed vial. I'll take the rest of the powder and put it back into the furnace.

I'm going to oxidise it, hydro -reduce it and anneal it to the white powder. Then I will put it into a vial and send all three vials to Pacific Spectrochem over in Los Angeles, one of the best spectroscopic firms in the U.

The next material came back: Just putting hydrogen on the iron oxide had made the iron quit being iron, and now it had become silica and aluminium. We'd just made the iron turn into silica and aluminium. The snow-white annealed sample was analysed as calcium and silica. Where had the aluminium gone? John said, "Dave, my life was so simple before I met you.

This makes absolutely no sense at all. But he said, "Dave, I have separated it physically and I have checked it chemically 50 different ways. You have 4 to 6 ounces per ton of palladium, 12 to 14 ounces per ton of platinum, ounces per ton of osmium, ounces per ton of ruthenium, ounces per ton of iridium, ounces per ton of rhodium.

It was such an incredible number that John said, "Dave, I've got to go to the natural place where this stuff comes from and I've got to take my own samples. This represents the whole geology, and he got the same numbers. Using the Soviet Academy of Sciences' and the US Bureau of Standards' weights and measures information as a starting point, we literally learned how to do qualitative and quantitative separations of all these elements.

This is what we found when we actually purchased a machine for high-pressure liquid chromatography. After he graduated, some of the graduate students there took that technology and developed it, and eventually Dow Chemical came in and bought it. It's computer-controlled, all high-pressure, and you can do very precise separations with it. Because this is the man who conceptualised and designed it and told them what the limitations would eventually be on it, he was the ideal man to take the technology and perfect it.

We actually separated five different species in the commercial rhodium trichloride. The word "metal" is like the word "army". You can't have a one-man army. The word metal refers to a conglomerate material. When you dissolve the metals in acid, you get a solution that is clear without solids.

You assume it's a free-ion solution, but when you are dealing with noble elements they're still not free ions. It's what is called "cluster chemistry". But what happens is that the metal-metal bonds are still retained by the material. You really aren't getting RhCl3. There is a difference between the metal-metal bonding material and the free ions. What you are buying is cluster chemistry; you are not getting free ions. When you put the material in for the instrumentation to analyse, it is actually the metal-metal bonds of the cluster that are analysed.

The instrumentation is not really analysing the free ions. So I made contacts with the fuel cell people back in Massachusetts and travelled there to meet with them.

They had three attorneys meet with us, and the GE people were also there. The attorneys were there to protect the GE people because a lot of people say they have technologies and they meet with them; then after the meeting they sue them, claiming that GE stole their technology. Then to defend themselves, GE has to divulge what their technology really is.

So CE is very sceptical when you say that you have something new. They bring their high-faluting attorneys to really screen you. You attorneys can leave. They knew that when they buy the commercial rhodium trichloride it analyses very well. But to make it ready to go into their fuel cells they have to do salt effusions on it, where they melt the salt and put the metal in with it to disperse it further. They know that when they do that, the metal doesn't analyse as well any more.

So when we told them we had material' that didn't analyse at all, they couldn't conceive how this was possible. They had never seen it, but they said, "We are interested". They said, "Dave, why don't you just make a bunch of rhodium for us and send it to us and we'll mount it in our fuel-cell technology. We'll see if it works in places where only rhodium works. What is the mechanism of conversion of monatomic rhodium to metallic rhodium in these fuel cells?

No other metal has ever been found which will perform the catalysis in the hydrogen-evolving technology of the fuel cell, other than rhodium and platinum. And rhodium is unique compared to platinum because rhodium does not poison with carbon monoxide and platinum does. We wanted to be absolutely sure that this was really clean stuff. We didn't want any problems with this.

GE, who by that time had sold their fuel-cell technology. All the GE fuel-cell people had gone to work for United Technologies, and, since United Technologies already had their in-house people, the GE people were not integrated into the existing teams. So all the GE people were junior people; they weren't senior any more. After a certain period of months they all quit and left United Technologies. Tony and all the GE people went with him. By the time our material got there, they'd set up their own company in Waltham, so we contracted with them to build the fuel cells for us.

Yet when they mounted it on carbon in their fuel-cell technology and ran the fuel cell for several weeks, it worked and did what only rhodium would do, and it was carbon monoxide-stable. After three weeks, they shut down the fuel cells, took out the electrodes and sent them back to the same place that said there was no rhodium in the original sample. What happened was it had begun to nucleate on the carbon! It actually had begun to grow metal-metal bonds! So now there was metallic rhodium showing on the carbon, where before there was no rhodium.

I said, "Well, maybe I should patent it. Now that is a mouthful, so, to make it short, we called it ORMEs. While we were doing this patent procedure, the Patent Office said, "Dave, we need more precise data, we need more exact data, we need more information about this conversion to this white powder state.

I'm not talking about a little bit of weight, I'm talking about 20 to 30 per cent. Now that normally would be called absorption of atmospheric gases: We had to come up with exact data for the Patent Office.

So what we did was use this machine for thermogravimetric analysis. This is a machine that has total atmospheric control of the sample. You can oxidise it, hydro-reduce it, and anneal it, while continually weighing the sample under a controlled atmosphere.

Everything is all sealed. We were getting short of funding and couldn't afford to buy one, so we leased one from the Bay Area from Varian Corporation. They sent it in to us and we set it up on computer controls. What we found was that when you oxidise the material, it weighs per cent; when you hydro-reduce it, it weighs per cent.

So far, so good. But, when it turns snow white, it weighs 56 per cent! When you anneal it and it turns white, it only weighs 56 per cent of the beginning weight! If you put that on a silica test boat and you weigh it, it weighs 56 per cent!

If you heat it to the point that it fuses into the glass, it turns black and all the weight returns. So the material hadn't volatilised away. It was still there. It just couldn't be weighed any more. When we tooled it, it would weigh to per cent of its beginning weight; when we heated it, it would actually weigh less than nothing?

If it wasn't in the pan, the pan would weigh more than the pan weighs when this stuff is in it! Keep in mind, these are highly trained people running this instrumentation, and they would come in and say, "Take a look at this. This makes no sense at all". It is in fact a strong magnet. Then, after you get up to degrees, it loses its magnetism. You can actually see if the interaction of the magnetism with the magnetic field of the heating element causes any change in weight.

This means that it goes round and round the sample; then you reverse it and wind it right back up so all the current runs against itself all the time. So when a wire flows electricity there is a magnetic field that forms around it, but when you run the wire right next to it, going in the other direction, it forms a magnetic field in the other direction.

The idea is that the two fields will cancel. This is the kind of wiring that is used in television to cancel all the magnetic fields. The designers of this machine wanted to eliminate the magnetic field aspect here. There was no change in weight when the material became magnetic or lost its magnetism.

Yet when our material was put in there and it turned white, it went to 56 per cent of its beginning weight. If you shut off the machine and let it cool, it was exactly 56 per cent. If you heated it, it would go less than nothing, and if you cooled it, it would go to per cent, but it always went back to a steady 56 per cent. There's something wrong with this machine; something isn't right.

Every time we use the machine it works fine unless we make the pure monatomic material, and when we do, it turns snow-white and doesn't work correctly any more. But inasmuch as you are heating the material, we don't know what you've got. So I bought and borrowed a bunch of graduate books on super-conductivity and I began to read about super-conductors.

We hooked a voltmeter used for checking circuitry up to the white powder expecting the needle to leap across the voltmeter because this was supposed to be perfect conductivity, but nothing happened.

Instead of this being a perfect conductor of electricity it's a perfect insulator. Now to get the electricity off the wire and into the sample takes a voltage potential, likewise to get electricity out of the sample and on to the wire needs a voltage potential. So we thought, what good is this? But what you learn is that you must resonance frequency tune the vibration frequency of the electron wave, until the vibrational frequency of the electron wave is perfectly matched with the vibrational frequency wave of the super-conductor.

When you do get them matched up, a strange thing happens when they go onto the super-conductor; the electrons pair up. They don't go on as individual electrons they go on in pairs! They go on as light. They exist in different places and locations, but when they pair up and become light you can put billions of them in the same space-time. And the only way you know they are in there is by checking the size of the Meissner that forms around the super-conductor.

Well, when electricity flows through a wire it produces a magnetic field around the wire, but with a super-conductor it produces what they call a Meissner. The cool thing about this is that it does not produce a north and south pole. It's a null field. A super-conductor has no resistance, so you could keep putting energy into it, to the point where it has so much Meissner around it that it becomes larger and larger, because of all the electrons and amperage.

It will cause the Earth's magnetic field to travel around it; it will not enter into the sample. It will become stuck in the magnetic field it is sitting in. To a point, you can put, as much energy in a super-conductor as you like, before it becomes HCL, which is a critical mass where as it becomes so huge it collapses and becomes normal. You don't want to be around when this happens.

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The information that is being share with you are all facts. It is something as lively and nimble as our own self. The brain has developed functions aimed and filtering and organizing perceptions into categories, which are instrumental to our interaction with the world. Have you ever wondered why they call it "Programming", and just who are they trying to program? If there be an initiation, then at this time the Magus and the High Priestess in Goddess position Arms Crossed says the Charge while the Initiate stands outside the circle. My sighs inborn Rise, touch, curl about thy heart. It may well be that they were bred by the Anunnaki to be the Earthly Rulers, that they were the beginning of the blood royal, the Holy Grail. The Pentacles shall be of wax that they may be melted nouveau site porno escort girl alençon broken at. Then you hydro-reduce that under a controlled atmosphere to get the element, and then you anneal away the excess hydrogen.

The one thing about finding pottery scrolls is that you have the master dye, unlike books, which could be changed over the years. All that was needed was for them to roll the scroll onto wet clay then decipher what they saw. The civilisation called itself the Anunnaki. They were as civilised as we are. They had schools, lawyers, books and fashion shows. The scrolls told the story of a whole civilisation, and its way of life.

The civilisation spoke of making Cro Magnon man from Neanderthal man. They were not happy with the results, and their leaders argued they should destroy them, which they did by way of a great flood, saving only a few. Those who survived were bred with the Anunnaki women to make Homo Sapiens, or thinking man. God said, 'let us make man in our image, in our likeness'.

In the Old Testament Genesis account it states, 'male and female created he them and he called their name Adam'. It may well be that they were bred by the Anunnaki to be the Earthly Rulers, that they were the beginning of the blood royal, the Holy Grail. Who were these people! If this is correct, no wonder they've never found the missing link. At this point I suddenly had a thought. Why do human beings have to shield their eyes with their hand to see on a sunny day! No other animal has to squint so why do we!

You don't see a horse or a cow squinting do you! A bird which flies high up in the sky where the Sun shines the' brightest doesn't even use its eyelids until it goes to sleep. A polar bear doesn't suffer with snow blindness caused by the reflection of the Sun that shines even brighter with the glare. When a deer or rabbit gets caught in your car headlights, they do not even blink let alone squint. Because they have adapted to living on Earth. Cro-Magnon man had a large forehead, which shielded his eyes; he would not have had to squint either.

Evolution doesn't go backwards does it? If we were from Earth we would still have a large protruding forehead to protect our eyes. Or our eyes themselves would have adapted by now. We must have come from a planet that was a little further away from its Sun. Are we the descendants of the Anunnaki! In the Old Testament we can read stories of people living until they are or years old.

This has been put down to translating errors by those who collated the Bible, with the Church merely saying, they meant to say 80 or 90 years old. According to the Anunnaki, to rule over their subjects, their leaders needed longevity.

Let's face it, if you get older you usually get wiser. Eight hundred years' worth is a lot of wisdom. To ensure this was the case, the Anunnaki fed their leaders bread and wine. Red wine as we know today, is very good for you; a glass a day can unclog your veins and keep them clear.

The bread the Anunnaki fed their leaders was made from a white powder made from the burning of the gold. Eating the bread made from the powdered gold, according to the Anunnaki, made their leaders more intelligent and made them live much longer. Now the Catholic Church must have known about this, because they still give the bread and wine in their Holy Communion ceremonies. One thing we can all be sure of today, is that there will be no gold powder in their bread.

We know that the last person to be fed this bread in a ceremony was the second Pharaoh. If that were the case, he marched his people about 50 miles out of their way, and they would not have been pleased.

It is more likely he went up Mount Horeb, which is en route and the story then fits what happened to him there. The Ten Commandments were no problem for Moses. Having been brought up by a Pharaoh he would have known the inaugural ceremony of the Pharaohs, in which they had to repeat after the high priest: I have not committed adultery. All Moses did was change the first words to Thou shalt, instead of, I Have, and it was all over bar the carving. The ordinary Israelites would not have been aware of the inaugural words so would not have been any the wiser.

The interesting part of this is the burning bush. When you arc gold for 70 seconds at Sun temperature, it has been found that a pencil standing on its end right next to the flash, scorches but does not fall over.

What did Moses witness on top of Mount Horeb? Was it the burning of gold, when he saw the blinding light and spoke to God through the burning bush that didn't actually burn? Did Moses make a mistake and think that the Anunnaki was God or did he know the Anunnaki as his creators so naturally thought of them as his God? On Moses' return to his people from the Mount, he sees them worshipping a golden calf and, according to the Bible, becomes angry, burns the golden calf to dust and makes them eat it.

He then smashes the tablets of stone, throws them in the Ark of the Covenant, and off they go. The Bible makes it sound as though Moses was punishing the Israelites by making them eat the calf. It could be that he was actually turning them all into leaders. You actually smelt gold - you don't burn it. But it sounds as if that is exactly what he did. The only way of burning gold to a powder is in 70 seconds at the temperature of the Sun's surface, and only then if the gold is very thin.

Otherwise you need to maintain that high temperature for seconds. It is interesting to note that the Bible puts all the emphasis on the Ten Commandments which, as we now know, were easy for Moses to create. Could the Bible be taking our attention away from the importance of the Ark of the Covenant and what it really held within?

Remember it took at least four people to lift and eight to carry the Ark of the Covenant. They were told not to touch the sides, only the handles. Did the Bible conveniently get the spelling wrong? Could it be the Arc of the Covenant? As in electrical arc? Is it the arc that melts the gold, with which they make the bread for higher intelligence?

Is this why it's been hidden from us for thousands of years? To get the kind of temperature necessary to almost vaporise gold you would need a capacitor, and that sounds very much what the Ark of the Covenant was. It is a fact that our brains contain a white substance.

Gold is the best conductor of electricity. Our brains receive messages by electronic impulses which travel through this white substance. Scientists also know that something in your brain is super-conducting but as yet they don't know what. If we were all very intelligent, there wouldn't be any workers.

We'd all be leaders. The people responsible for putting a value on gold had to be somebody who knew gold's ultimate potential or capabilities. To the Anunnaki it was more than prized, they needed it for their way of life and probably their very existence. They could not have been from this planet, because they were too advanced for that time. So could it be they arrived from somewhere to find that the inhabitants of planet Earth are Neanderthal - not even intelligent enough to work for them.

Perhaps they then set about upgrading them to Homo Sapiens and, eventually, succeeded. They would then have needed leaders to keep order, and perhaps they fed these leaders with the white powdered gold. The Homo Sapiens would then have been taught that gold is precious and that it needed to be mined. When the Homo Sapiens had mined it, their leaders could hoard it in vast quantities. Once the process was in motion, it would be able to run by itself. Not, perhaps, forever, but for at least a few thousand years or so.

All that would be needed would be to give the Homo Sapiens a helping hand occasionally, and you would have a mining community that takes care of itself, doesn't need paying and doesn't even know who its boss is.

If you are an Anunnaki, and you live for years, you don't have to wait many generations to collect your rewards. Like gathering the honey from the bees, one day the bosses will be coming back to harvest the gold, which is kept in nice convenient little heaps like at Fort Knox, ready for collection.

If you asked anybody on this planet why we prize such a common metal as gold, they could not tell you. There is no reason; most gold just sits there collecting dust. The Anunnaki's system would continue to operate unhindered. They gave us a way of life that suited them, not necessarily us, but we knew no different. If we are looking for answers to the thousands of questions this raises, the answers have to lie with the Anunnaki themselves.

Where did they come from? And, just as important, where did they go? They certainly existed, and we know this because of the scrolls and their writings. Some of these are in the British Museum, along with vials of the white powder made from the gold, although the latter is not on public display. To hide a secret as big as this, you have to be in complete control of the evidence. According to their scrolls, the Anunnaki must have had a long-term objective when they start talking about changing Neanderthal into Cro-Magnon man, then into Homo Sapiens.

This is powerful stuff; this is no ordinary race of people we're talking about. We're talking about manipulating DNA. The idea of anybody knowing about such things at that time is difficult to comprehend. Then, when this race of people are successful, seeding two Homo Sapiens who they name Adam and Eve, through to Abraham, Moses and Jesus this is mind blowing.

It is a strong possibility that the Anunnaki will soon come back for their gold. Can you imagine if the Anunnaki are doing this all round the universe? Upgrading life forms so that they can gather gold for them?

Will there soon come a time when we realise that we needed the gold for our own technical evolution, and it'll be too late to save any of it? The Europeans did the same thing to the native Americans, the native Australians, the Africans, and many others. When will we be paying them back for the gold we took? Nor will the Anunnaki be paying us back. With so many UFO sightings since the war, the Anunnaki could be here sooner rather than later.

The way all this information came to light really intrigued me. When I first spoke to Laurence Gardner, a genealogist and author of Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, I was amazed to learn that the book was a by-product of his being commissioned by a European prince to trace his family tree.

He began the laborious job of tracing the Prince's ancestors back through the ages until he reached a point where he felt the need to confront the prince with the question, 'Do you know where this is all leading? When Laurence had finished the work for the Royal he decided to write the book. However he became so intrigued by his findings he could not stop at that, and carried on investigating Jesus' bloodline, and produced his second book, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, which led a trail through from Jesus to Moses, Abraham and Adam and Eve.

An interesting point that this raises is that the Bible states that Jesus' father Joseph was a carpenter. However, this is not what the original text of the Bible states. What was actually said was that Joseph was a Master of the Craft. Anyone who knows a little of modern Freemasonry will know the term 'the craft' and it has nothing to do with wood. What the Bible was actually telling us before the Church got hold of it was that Joseph was just one of a long line of highly trained metallurgists.

The only people that could be metallurgists at that time were priests and royalty and you would need to be a metallurgist to be able to convert gold into white powder. To add more weight to Laurence's work if that's possible is the work of the pioneering researcher David Hudson, an American dirt farmer. Now according to David, the difference between dirt farmers and ordinary farmers is that the dirt farmer has to make his own soil from pulverising rock.

In he was doing an analysis of natural products in the area where he was farming. This high-sodium soil, which looks like chocolate ice cream on the ground, is just crunchy black. It crunches when you walk on it. Water will not penetrate this soil. Water will not leech the sodium out of the ground. It's called black alkali. David was aware that it was possible to leech the sodium from the soil with sulphuric acid.

Neighbouring his farm was a copper mine whose waste product was sulphuric acid. He was able to obtain as much as he needed as long as he moved it himself. He eventually administered between tons per acre over his land.

This penetrated 3 or 4 inches into the ground. When he irrigated, the soil would froth and foam due to the action of the sulphuric acid. What it did was to change black alkali into white alkali, which was water-soluble. Within two years he was able to grow crops. Evidently it is very important to have enough calcium in the soil in the form of calcium carbonate.

Calcium carbonate will act as a buffer for the acid in the soil. If you do not have enough calcium, the acidity in the soil goes down. David said, 'It is important when you are putting all these amendments to your soil that you understand what is in your soil, how much iron there is, how much calcium and so on. In doing the analysis of these natural products David was coming across a 'material consisting of no one knew quite what, It seemed more abundant in one area so they decided to begin there.

Using chemistry he dissolved the material in a solution and it became blood red. Yet when he precipitated this material out chemically by using a reductant of powdered zinc, the material would come out as a black precipitant just like it was supposed to if it were a 'noble' element.

With a noble element, if you chemically bring it out of acid, it won't re-dissolve in the acid. After he precipitated this material out of the black he took the material and dried it. At the time David had no drying furnace so he just took it outside in the warm Arizona sunshine which, he says, was degrees at 5 per cent humidity, so it really dried fast.

Then a strange thing happened. After the material dried, it exploded. But this was no normal explosion. It just went poof! It was neither an explosion, nor an implosion; all the material had gone in a flash as if 50, flash bulbs had gone off all at one time. So David took a new pencil and stood it on end next to the material as it was drying. When the material detonated, it burned the pencil about 30 per cent but did not knock the pencil over.

Whatever this stuff was, David thought, it was wild. He discovered if he dried the material away from sunlight, it not explode. He then took some of the powder that had dried away from the sunlight, and using a crucible reductionvessel made of porcelain, he mixed the powdered material with lead and flux, and heated it until the lead melted. When you do this, the metals that are heavier than lead stay in the lead and those that are lighter float out. This material settled to the bottom of the lead just as if it was gold and silver.

It seemed to be denser than lead and it was separated from it. Yet when he took this material and put it on a bone ash cupel, the lead soaked into the cupel and left a bead of gold and silver. The strange thing was, Dave could take the bead and hit it with a hammer and shatter it, like glass.

There is no known alloy of gold and silver that is not soft. Gold and silver dissolve in each other readily and form a solid solution.

Both are soft elements so any alloy made from them will be soft and ductile. David told them, 'Something's going on here that we don't understand. Something unusual is happening,' David took the beads of gold and silver back to his laboratory and separated them chemically. All he had left was a quantity of black stuff. He then took this back to the commercial laboratories and they told him it was iron, silica and aluminium.

He told them it couldn't be iron, silica and aluminium. Firstly you can't dissolve it in any acids or any bases once it is totally dry. It doesn't dissolve in fuming sulphuric acid, it doesn't dissolve in sulphuric nitric acid, and it doesn't dissolve in hydrochloric nitric acid.

Even gold dissolves in that, yet it won't dissolve this black stuff. David decided to hire a PhD at Cornell University who considered himself an expert on precious elements.

He paid the doctor to go to Arizona to see the problem for himself. He told David he had a machine back at Cornell that could analyse down to parts per billion. He said, 'If you let me take this material back to Cornell I'll tell you exactly what you have, if it's anything above iron we will find it.

When they arrived back and tested the material he told David, 'You have iron, silica and aluminium. They were able to remove all of the silica, all of the iron and all of the aluminium.

Yet they still had 98 per cent of the sample that was pure nothing. By now, more than a little frustrated, David said, 'I can hold this in my hand, I can weigh it, I can perform chemistry with it. That has to be something. It is not nothing. Neither had he offered to pay David back. So I'm going back to do the work myself. He went back to Phoenix totally disillusioned with academia. He was neither impressed with the PhDs or the money they charged. He discovered whilst at Cornell that they work students to generate papers, but the papers say nothing.

The government however pays them for every paper they write, so they get their money based on the amount of papers they turn out. They all say the same thing: David was in no way about to give in, and began asking around the Phoenix area where he found a man who was a spectroscopist who had studied in West Germany at the Institute for Spectroscopy. He had also been a technician for a Lab Test company in Los Angeles, which actually built spectroscopic equipment.

He was also the man who blueprinted the machines, and designed them, constructed them, then took them to the field and made them work.

David thought, here is a good man. This is not just a technician. Here is a man who knows how the machine works. The Soviet Academy of Science published it. For those who have never performed spectroscopy, it involves taking a carbon electrode that is cupped at the top.

You then put the powder on that electrode; you bring the other electrode down above it, which creates an arc. In about 15 seconds, the carbon at this high temperature burns away, the electrode's gone and your sample's gone.

All normal laboratories in the USA and possibly right around the world are doing this, then giving a full and final result after only a 15 second burn. As you know from driving a car, as long as there is water in the motor of your car the temperature of the car engine will never get hotter than the temperature of water. If you just heated the water on the stove in a pan, you know that the pan never gets hotter than the boiling temperature of water until the water is gone.

Once all the water is gone, the temperature skyrockets very fast. Now, it is hard to fathom how something with as high a temperature as iron could be just like water to these elements, but it is. Soviet Academy of Sciences, this is the length of time we had to burn the sample. It was a huge machine. It took up the whole garage area. It was about 30 feet long and about 8 or 9 feet high. So, at the end of 15 seconds, we were getting nothing.

Twenty seconds, 25 seconds, 30 seconds, 35 seconds, 40 seconds - still nothing. Forty-five seconds, 50 seconds, 55 seconds, 60 seconds, 65 seconds, but if you looked in through the coloured glass, sitting there on the carbon electrode was this little ball of white material. There was still something in there. And after the palladium, platinum began to read. After the platinum, rhodium began to read. After rhodium, ruthenium began to read.

After the ruthenium, then iridium began to read and after the iridium, osmium began to read. I had heard of platinum, but what were these other elements? Well, there are six platinum group elements in the periodic table, not just platinum.

They didn't find out about them at the same time, so they have been added one at a time. Then you say to yourself "Gee, these are important materials, aren't they? When you bring it out, it contains one-third of one ounce per ton of all the precious elements.

We checked our analysis, which we ran for two-and -a-half years, over and over. We checked every spectral line. We checked every potential on interference; we checked every aspect.

We wanted exact matches. This work wasn't an indication that these elements were there. These elements were there and they were there in beacoup amounts. They were saying, "Hey stupid man, pay attention! We are trying to show you something. But they were there in such huge amounts, I said, "Golly, how can they be there in these quantities and no one knew it? It was two-and-a-half years of spectral analysis, running this material every day.

And the man actually sent me away when they read because he could not believe it either. He worked on it another two months before he called me up and said, "Dave, you are right". That is how sceptical he was about it. He couldn't apologise to me. He is a German researcher with German pride, so he had his wife call and apologise to me. He was actually written up in the spectroscopic journals as having proven the existence of these elements in natural materials in the south-western United States.

They're not the kind of journals that you and I would ever get to read, but I actually saw the journals and he was written up. They had no idea where this stuff was coming from, how we were producing it, what concentrations we had gone through or anything. They had analysed just this small amount of powder. The crazy thing about it was that all we had done was to remove the silica and send the other stuff in. They were pretty unbelievable numbers.

After we had come at this in every way we knew, in order to disprove it, I decided all we had to do was throw money at this problem, because money solves everything, right? So, at 69 seconds, I stopped the burn. I let the machine cool down and I took a pocket knife and dug that little bead out of the top of the electrode. When you shut off the arc, it absorbs down into the carbon and you have to dig down into the carbon to get the little bead of metal.

They made a precious metal analysis of this bead. I got a report back: Yet, according to neutron activation, which analysed the nucleus itself, there were no precious elements detected.

This made absolutely no sense at all. There had to be an explanation here. Either this material had been converted to another element or it was in a form that we didn't understand yet. So I decided I had to get more information on it. He's the man that Motorola and Sperry used in the State of Arizona to handle their waste water problems.

He has worked with all the rare earths, he has worked with all the man-made elements. Coincidentally, I went to him to have him separate six elements; four of those were the elements he had never worked on.

He said "You know, Mr Hudson, I have heard this story before. All my life and I'm a native Arizonan, too - I heard this story about these precious elements. I am very impressed with the way you have gone about this, with the systematic way you have approached it. I cannot accept any money because if I accept money from you I have to write you a written report. All I have to sell is my reputation.

All I have to sell is my credibility. I'm a certified expert witness in the state of Arizona in metallurgical separation systems. When I can tell you where you are wrong, I'll give you a written report.

If this got rid of the curse, if this just got the thing answered once and for all, it would be worth it. Do it, get on with it. We are educated; we are taught to do the chemical separation of the material and then send it for instrumental confirmation. The example I use is rhodium because it has a unique colour in the chloride solution. It is a cranberry colour, almost like the colour of grape juice. There is no other element that produces the same colour in chloride solution. When my rhodium was separated from all the other elements, it produced that colour of chloride.

The last procedure you do to separate the material out is to neutralise the acid solution, and it precipitates out of solution as a red-brown dioxide. It is heated under a controlled atmosphere to degrees for an hour, and that creates the anhydrous dioxide.

Then you hydro-reduce that under a controlled atmosphere to get the element, and then you anneal away the excess hydrogen. Then we filtered that out. We heated it under oxygen for an hour in a tube furnace, then we hydro-reduced it to this grey-white powder, exactly the colour rhodium should be as an element. Then we heated it up to 1, degrees under argon to anneal away the material, and it turned snow-white.

Now this wasn't expected. This just isn't what is supposed to happen. I'm going to cool it down. I'm going to take one third of the sample and put it into a sealed vial.

I'm going to put the rest of the sample back onto the tube furnace and heat it up under oxygen, cool it back down, purge it with inert gas, and heat it back up under hydrogen to reduce away the oxides.

I'll cool that down to the grey-white powder. I'll cool down that grey-white powder. I'll take half of that and put it into another sealed vial. I'll take the rest of the powder and put it back into the furnace. I'm going to oxidise it, hydro -reduce it and anneal it to the white powder. Then I will put it into a vial and send all three vials to Pacific Spectrochem over in Los Angeles, one of the best spectroscopic firms in the U.

The next material came back: Just putting hydrogen on the iron oxide had made the iron quit being iron, and now it had become silica and aluminium. We'd just made the iron turn into silica and aluminium. The snow-white annealed sample was analysed as calcium and silica. Where had the aluminium gone? John said, "Dave, my life was so simple before I met you.

This makes absolutely no sense at all. But he said, "Dave, I have separated it physically and I have checked it chemically 50 different ways. You have 4 to 6 ounces per ton of palladium, 12 to 14 ounces per ton of platinum, ounces per ton of osmium, ounces per ton of ruthenium, ounces per ton of iridium, ounces per ton of rhodium. It was such an incredible number that John said, "Dave, I've got to go to the natural place where this stuff comes from and I've got to take my own samples.

This represents the whole geology, and he got the same numbers. Using the Soviet Academy of Sciences' and the US Bureau of Standards' weights and measures information as a starting point, we literally learned how to do qualitative and quantitative separations of all these elements. This is what we found when we actually purchased a machine for high-pressure liquid chromatography. After he graduated, some of the graduate students there took that technology and developed it, and eventually Dow Chemical came in and bought it.

It's computer-controlled, all high-pressure, and you can do very precise separations with it. Because this is the man who conceptualised and designed it and told them what the limitations would eventually be on it, he was the ideal man to take the technology and perfect it.

We actually separated five different species in the commercial rhodium trichloride. The word "metal" is like the word "army". You can't have a one-man army. The word metal refers to a conglomerate material.

When you dissolve the metals in acid, you get a solution that is clear without solids. You assume it's a free-ion solution, but when you are dealing with noble elements they're still not free ions. It's what is called "cluster chemistry". But what happens is that the metal-metal bonds are still retained by the material.

You really aren't getting RhCl3. There is a difference between the metal-metal bonding material and the free ions. What you are buying is cluster chemistry; you are not getting free ions. When you put the material in for the instrumentation to analyse, it is actually the metal-metal bonds of the cluster that are analysed.

The instrumentation is not really analysing the free ions. So I made contacts with the fuel cell people back in Massachusetts and travelled there to meet with them.

They had three attorneys meet with us, and the GE people were also there. The attorneys were there to protect the GE people because a lot of people say they have technologies and they meet with them; then after the meeting they sue them, claiming that GE stole their technology.

Then to defend themselves, GE has to divulge what their technology really is. So CE is very sceptical when you say that you have something new.

They bring their high-faluting attorneys to really screen you. You attorneys can leave. They knew that when they buy the commercial rhodium trichloride it analyses very well. But to make it ready to go into their fuel cells they have to do salt effusions on it, where they melt the salt and put the metal in with it to disperse it further.

They know that when they do that, the metal doesn't analyse as well any more. So when we told them we had material' that didn't analyse at all, they couldn't conceive how this was possible. They had never seen it, but they said, "We are interested". They said, "Dave, why don't you just make a bunch of rhodium for us and send it to us and we'll mount it in our fuel-cell technology.

We'll see if it works in places where only rhodium works. What is the mechanism of conversion of monatomic rhodium to metallic rhodium in these fuel cells? No other metal has ever been found which will perform the catalysis in the hydrogen-evolving technology of the fuel cell, other than rhodium and platinum.

And rhodium is unique compared to platinum because rhodium does not poison with carbon monoxide and platinum does. We wanted to be absolutely sure that this was really clean stuff. We didn't want any problems with this. GE, who by that time had sold their fuel-cell technology. All the GE fuel-cell people had gone to work for United Technologies, and, since United Technologies already had their in-house people, the GE people were not integrated into the existing teams.

So all the GE people were junior people; they weren't senior any more. After a certain period of months they all quit and left United Technologies. Tony and all the GE people went with him. By the time our material got there, they'd set up their own company in Waltham, so we contracted with them to build the fuel cells for us. Yet when they mounted it on carbon in their fuel-cell technology and ran the fuel cell for several weeks, it worked and did what only rhodium would do, and it was carbon monoxide-stable.

After three weeks, they shut down the fuel cells, took out the electrodes and sent them back to the same place that said there was no rhodium in the original sample. What happened was it had begun to nucleate on the carbon! It actually had begun to grow metal-metal bonds!

So now there was metallic rhodium showing on the carbon, where before there was no rhodium. I said, "Well, maybe I should patent it. Now that is a mouthful, so, to make it short, we called it ORMEs. While we were doing this patent procedure, the Patent Office said, "Dave, we need more precise data, we need more exact data, we need more information about this conversion to this white powder state.

I'm not talking about a little bit of weight, I'm talking about 20 to 30 per cent. Now that normally would be called absorption of atmospheric gases: We had to come up with exact data for the Patent Office. So what we did was use this machine for thermogravimetric analysis. This is a machine that has total atmospheric control of the sample. You can oxidise it, hydro-reduce it, and anneal it, while continually weighing the sample under a controlled atmosphere.

Everything is all sealed. We were getting short of funding and couldn't afford to buy one, so we leased one from the Bay Area from Varian Corporation.

They sent it in to us and we set it up on computer controls. What we found was that when you oxidise the material, it weighs per cent; when you hydro-reduce it, it weighs per cent. So far, so good. But, when it turns snow white, it weighs 56 per cent! When you anneal it and it turns white, it only weighs 56 per cent of the beginning weight!

If you put that on a silica test boat and you weigh it, it weighs 56 per cent! If you heat it to the point that it fuses into the glass, it turns black and all the weight returns. So the material hadn't volatilised away. It was still there. It just couldn't be weighed any more. When we tooled it, it would weigh to per cent of its beginning weight; when we heated it, it would actually weigh less than nothing? If it wasn't in the pan, the pan would weigh more than the pan weighs when this stuff is in it!

Keep in mind, these are highly trained people running this instrumentation, and they would come in and say, "Take a look at this. This makes no sense at all".

It is in fact a strong magnet. Then, after you get up to degrees, it loses its magnetism. You can actually see if the interaction of the magnetism with the magnetic field of the heating element causes any change in weight. This means that it goes round and round the sample; then you reverse it and wind it right back up so all the current runs against itself all the time.

So when a wire flows electricity there is a magnetic field that forms around it, but when you run the wire right next to it, going in the other direction, it forms a magnetic field in the other direction.

The idea is that the two fields will cancel. This is the kind of wiring that is used in television to cancel all the magnetic fields. The designers of this machine wanted to eliminate the magnetic field aspect here.

There was no change in weight when the material became magnetic or lost its magnetism. Yet when our material was put in there and it turned white, it went to 56 per cent of its beginning weight. If you shut off the machine and let it cool, it was exactly 56 per cent. If you heated it, it would go less than nothing, and if you cooled it, it would go to per cent, but it always went back to a steady 56 per cent. There's something wrong with this machine; something isn't right. Every time we use the machine it works fine unless we make the pure monatomic material, and when we do, it turns snow-white and doesn't work correctly any more.

But inasmuch as you are heating the material, we don't know what you've got. So I bought and borrowed a bunch of graduate books on super-conductivity and I began to read about super-conductors. We hooked a voltmeter used for checking circuitry up to the white powder expecting the needle to leap across the voltmeter because this was supposed to be perfect conductivity, but nothing happened.

Instead of this being a perfect conductor of electricity it's a perfect insulator. Now to get the electricity off the wire and into the sample takes a voltage potential, likewise to get electricity out of the sample and on to the wire needs a voltage potential.

So we thought, what good is this? But what you learn is that you must resonance frequency tune the vibration frequency of the electron wave, until the vibrational frequency of the electron wave is perfectly matched with the vibrational frequency wave of the super-conductor.

When you do get them matched up, a strange thing happens when they go onto the super-conductor; the electrons pair up. They don't go on as individual electrons they go on in pairs! They go on as light. They exist in different places and locations, but when they pair up and become light you can put billions of them in the same space-time. And the only way you know they are in there is by checking the size of the Meissner that forms around the super-conductor.

Well, when electricity flows through a wire it produces a magnetic field around the wire, but with a super-conductor it produces what they call a Meissner.

The cool thing about this is that it does not produce a north and south pole. It's a null field. A super-conductor has no resistance, so you could keep putting energy into it, to the point where it has so much Meissner around it that it becomes larger and larger, because of all the electrons and amperage. It will cause the Earth's magnetic field to travel around it; it will not enter into the sample. It will become stuck in the magnetic field it is sitting in.

To a point, you can put, as much energy in a super-conductor as you like, before it becomes HCL, which is a critical mass where as it becomes so huge it collapses and becomes normal.

You don't want to be around when this happens. The neat thing is you can make a super-conductor that say runs from Tampa to San Francisco and you can resonance frequency tune the energy, put it in the super-conductor here, and it will get a free ride all the way to San Francisco. All these atoms in perfect resonance harmony producing a quantral wave, and the energy gets on this wave' system and has a free ride all the way to San Francisco.

At this point, while David goes on to talk about the possibility of floating trains, which they already have in Japan but which work by using opposing magnetic fields, I was imagining a huge egg-shaped craft with Dave's super conductive powder sandwiched in-between an outer skin with people inside ready to go to Australia at the speed of light.

Because if Earth's gravitational field has no effect on the occupants because of the Meissner, speed would not be a problem. Perhaps even to the Moon and beyond.

Travel would become so quick and easy. Each element had individual patents. You can imagine the patent office when we tried to patent gold, oh great, who are these guys? Then I filed another set of patents on the super-conductive state. It's like a man being an army, a man can't be an army, a one-man army isn't real, an army is many men. Well a super-conductor is many atoms, you can't have one atom being a super-conductor. I didn't know this, so I just went ahead and filed the patent.

Well, the Department of Defence didn't get involved. I only used the word super-conductivity once in the closing paragraph on the summary page of my patent application. I talked about the Meissner, its reaction with gravity the levitation , but I didn't use the word super-conductivity except one time in the closing paragraph. So they never realised it was a super conducting patent. So I waited until about three weeks before the end of the year, and contacted the patent office and told them I'm going to file a worldwide patent.

Evidently, someone at the patent office re-read my patent application again and said, "Oh gosh it's about super-conductivity. Then I went back to them and said, "Wait, by law I have a six month appeal period, I've only got three weeks.

So they over-rode the Department of Defence, and let me file worldwide. Next, I get a phone call from this guy out of the blue, who wants to invest in my technology. I said, "How did you hear about this? So I had a private investigator check him out; I said "Find out who he is and where he comes from. When they took this legislation to the legislator here in the United States, they turned it down.

They didn't allow funding money for Star Wars. He said to Dave, 'I've got to have this stuff, because the only way you're going to get absolute confirmation that no one will question, is to have it show that it reflects neutrons.

He said, 'Dave, have you ever taken this to a university and had university funding or government funding or grants of any kind? There was just no way they could get involved with him legally. Dave said, 'he came back to me a couple of times and then gave up'. There was no way he could make Dave do anything. He could see he was totally private and there was nothing he could do.

When you understand that this produces gamma radiation, the last thing you need is the military having this information. However, before they let Dave go to patent pending in the US, the military had to approve it. They told him, 'You must get this confirmed by a totally independent laboratory, someone who has no affiliation with you, someone with credentials.

Were they good enough? So they said, 'Here's what we want you to do, we want you to buy pure yellow gold, When Dave told him his whole story, he said, 'we have physicists here at the national labs that have theorised that the very elements you are telling us should, do this. We know this already. We just don't have anybody who can make them into that state. We're making them one atom at a time in the nuclear facility and know they exist in this state, but making them one at a time it's going to take years and years to produce enough to evaluate it as a super-conductor.

So he was very excited about it. He wrote it all up and submitted to the Argon National Laboratories, and their attorneys turned it down. Because, they said, 'It involves chemistry and it can be done without the government lab's involvement. You can go to a private lab to get this done, and our very purpose for existence was to do things that you couldn't get done at a private lab. Dave said, 'Roger, the problem is if you don't make the white powder, how do you know it's gold, because you have no machine that will confirm it's gold?

I'll write to them, and tell them I want them to make this white powder for you. I know them well enough that, if they say it came from gold, I will accept it as coming from gold.

They bought the yellow gold, and using his procedure made the white powder. And they acknowledged they didn't know where this stuff came from, because it doesn't analyse to be gold, it doesn't have the properties of gold, but it came out of gold. So David provided the affidavit to the patent office, all signed sealed and notarised. Now it goes to the Department of Defence and they say, That's not enough, now we want to know how you take the white powder and change it back to the yellow metal, gold'.

Dave said, 'You must understand this is a materials patent not a procedural patent for the white powder, I was patenting the white powder. I showed them how to make the white powder from a known material, I made an apple into apple sauce, now they wanted me to make the apple sauce into an apple. David told them, I can do it, but I don't think I want to tell you how to do it. If they got that piece of the puzzle they would know exactly how this phenomenon works.

They would get this stuff and put it into lasers and learn how to energise those with OCR and help produce gamma radiation. And that's a weapon you don't want Gadaffi having, or Hussein, or the military. It will go through brick walls and lead; it will kill everybody in the building but not harm the building.

It is a very dangerous material, and no one should mess with it. So in David Hudson quit pursuing the patent. The attorney said, 'They never can grant a patent to anyone else that will ever apply for yours, because you applied for it and got turned down. So anyone who is searching for his patents and not finding them that's the reason why, all you'll find is 'patent applied for'.

David was financially strapped by then, as it was costing a hell of a lot to maintain the patents. He coupled this with the assurance that they could never issue another patent to anyone on his patent, and said, 'Drop it, don't let us pursue it anymore. In his uncle came to him with a book and said, 'This book talks about white powdered gold. I'm a dirt farmer trying to get credibility in physics and chemistry and you bring me a book on alchemy.

I'm really not interested in alchemy. Alchemy is when the Church were involved, this is the occult, I'm not interested in that stuff.

His uncle said, But Dave, it talks about a white powder gold, it even talks about gold glass. But if you heat it in a vacuum at 1, degrees it will fuse to a pure glass, it's very brittle, but it will grind back down to the white powder.

But it is glass. It also talked about it being the main container of the essence of life. So one of the first things we did was to go to Safeways and buy some cow and pigs brains and take them to the laboratories and put them in fuming sulphuric acid and carbonise them, and then oxidise away the carbon and do a metal sulphate analysis on the residue. Then we read this text that says it's the container of the essences of life.

I thought, gosh is this possible that this is the same white powder that they are talking about? So I began to do medical studies with it. Now I've done physics, chemistry, super-conductivity, quantum mechanics, and now I'm into medicine. This dog was a golden retriever who had an abscess, valley fever and tick fever. No medicine they had could cure this animal, nothing would work. They injected 1 milligram, 1 cc in the tumour on his side, 1 cc intravenously and after a week and a half everything has gone away, and the dog's feeling great.

That's so small you can barely see it. However, after a week it began to grow back. So they began to inject the dog again, but this time they kept it going for about two weeks and it never came back. Then, without telling Dave at the time, the doctor began to give it to an HIV patient.

The HIV patient was literally so weak he could not eat or speak. He was on his deathbed being fed by IV every two days. The doctor injected 2 milligrams of the powder into his IV After a week and a half, he is getting dressed on his own, he's eating on his own, and he's thrown away the IV lines, and they have to inject directly into his arm.

In a month and a half he's on a plane flying back home to Indiana to attend a family wedding and shaking hands with everybody. They don't even know he's HIV positive. With some cancers you may from time to time, but not with HIV. The doctor was very impressed. La trasformazione dei Comuni in Signorie era già avviata alla fine del secolo. Fra Piemonte e Lombardia ben venti città si sottomettono spontaneamente al Marchese di Monferrato. Albeggia quella dei despoti.

Compilati e adattati per essere postato per Leopoldo Costa. Pendant que le chevalier et son hôte conversent, un jeune homme portant une lance blanche traverse en silence la grande salle du château.

Le graal retient toute son attention. Sans hésiter, il franchit le pont-levis abaissé. Sans doute les serviteurs seront-ils sortis relever des pièges dans la forêt? Il en profitera pour le questionner sur cette étrange lance qui saigne et sur ce mystérieux graal.

Il a beau crier, personne ne répond à ses appels. Comment cet énigmatique récipient, apparu pour la première fois dans un récit de la fin du XIIe siècle, va-t-il devenir le Saint-Graal?

Quel est son lien avec la Passion du Christ? Quelle grave erreur de ne pas avoir osé parler du Graal! Il aurait pu ainsi guérir le Roi et faire la joie de son royaume. À présent, tous sont condamnés au malheur, à commencer par lui-même. Le fougueux jeune homme devenant un chevalier errant, mélancolique et rongé par la culpabilité.

Depuis douze ans, ce saint homme survit sans sortir de sa chambre, en se nourrissant du seul contenu du Graal. Que peut-il donc bien contenir? Dans le Graal, ces poissons de luxe sont remplacés par une hostie. Les moines de Glastonbury creusent avec ferveur le sol de la colline qui domine leur nouvelle abbaye. Un des bénédictins a reçu en songe une révélation: Ces derniers tolèrent mal la domination normande, même après quatre-vingt-dix ans. Et le miracle se produit: Est-ce bien là en effet, comme le soutiennent les moines de Glastonbury et la famille Plantagenêt, que se cache le Saint-Graal?

Où est caché le vrai Saint-Graal? Et pourquoi son histoire est-elle si étroitement liée à celle du roi Arthur et de ses chevaliers? Le conte devient ainsi une histoire ou plutôt un livre, comme la Bible, dont la vérité ne peut être mise en cause. En France, les Capétiens ont également su en faire à leur avantage une arme de propagande.

Et ils ne seront pas les seuls Chrétien de Troyes fait aussi des émules en Allemagne. Le roi biblique en a eu la révélation grâce à son ascendance prestigieuse et à sa science des étoiles.

Mais que cherchaient ces chevaliers? Dans son Livre du Graal, ce dernier ne se contente pas de relayer son illustre prédécesseur. Désormais, les chevaliers du roi Arthur font figure de serviteurs zélés du Dieu chrétien. En effet, Robert de Boron a noué un fil solide entre la table de la Cène et la Table ronde.

Le mythe de la quête du Graal est né! Aucune trace de ce contenant sacré dans la tradition chrétienne avant la fin du XIIe siècle. Des modèles possibles du Graal prolifèrent en revanche dans la mythologie des peuples celtes: Grâce au Graal, Chrétien de Troyes avait accompli un miracle: En , Otto Rahn, un médiéviste collaborateur direct du SS Heinrich Himmler, défendit la thèse selon laquelle le château de Montségur aurait abrité, pendant la croisade contre les Albigeois, les derniers représentants des Aryens, ainsi que leur ultime symbole, le Graal.

Revenons sur cette Allemagne du XIVe siècle. Son Graal est une pierre verte qui ornait le front de Lucifer le Porte-lumière en latin. Albrecht situe le royaume du Graal près des Pyrénées et nomme le gardien de la pierre Pérille. Or, au XIXe siècle, on note la ressemblance entre ce nom et celui des seigneurs de Montségur, les Perelha. Une nouvelle légende voit le jour: Le dernier bastion des cathares du XIIIe siècle voit alors affluer les romantiques allemands.

On raconte même que Richard Wagner se rendit en pèlerinage à la citadelle, ainsi que dans un village voisin, Rennes-le-Château, où un curé du nom de Bérenger Saunière allait découvrir, quelques années plus tard, un fabuleux trésor. Encore un terrain de prédilection pour les chasseurs de Graal. Il continue à obséder nos contemporains: Ainsi, les lecteurs du Figaro du août ont eu la surprise de découvrir dans leur journal le titre suivant: Ce vase légendaire, associé à la quête du roi Arthur et des chevaliers de la Table ronde, se trouverait à la fois en Grande-Bretagne et en Italie.

Les réactions ne se feront pas attendre. Scandalisé, Rocco Zingaro di San Fernando, grand maître des Templiers italiens, dément en exhibant une fiole verte: On y vénère un récipient taillé dans une agate orientale de couleur vert émeraude qui aurait servi à la première eucharistie pendant la Cène. Dactylographié et adapté pour être posté par Leopoldo Costa. European men and women were alike sensitive to the cultural currents of the age, but they could differ importantly in their responses.

In the first place, although it is virtually impossible to measure, it is likely that fewer women than men were affected by growing and conscious uncertainty about old assumptions. Those people who showed such uncertainty were an educated minority, and among them the traditional shape of education for women almost certainly meant that most of them were men.

Church-going provides a guide to the prevalence of conservative attitudes among women; in all denominations and churches, pews and seats were more usually occupied by women than men. In considering that fact, too, the focus shifts away from the educated minority, and it is hard to believe that most girls and women, whether in the industrial towns or the countryside, were likely to question traditional and customary views about their roles, potential and, above all, standing in relation to the other sex.

Yet important changes can be discerned at the same time as, at least, qualifying old rigidities and restrictions. They were to be of slowly growing but eventually gigantic importance in undermining many of women's practical servitudes. Long ago, the earliest days of modern industrial society had seen the creation of new wage-earning jobs notably in textile mills which gave women incomes potentially, at least, their own.

A woman able to earn her own living could take a small step down the road to freedom from other constraints laid on her by tradition; marriage was no longer essential to economic survival. Economic development thereafter brought about a major, if quiet and unthreatening practical shift of economic power.

The maturing in scale and complexity of the advanced capitalist economy was providing by great numbers of new jobs — as typists, secretaries, telephone operators, factory hands, department store assistants and teachers — for women in some European countries and North America almost none of which had existed a century earlier.

Women, of course, have long been deeply involved in the daily labour of society, even in simple agricultural systems, and there is nothing new in the gainful employment of women as such. But in India, or Africa, a country woman is even today likely to toil as a field labourer on the family plot, very much under the control of the menfolk of her family, and exploited in the interests of others.

For growing numbers of girls in a few European countries even at the beginning of the century, a job as secretary or shop assistant already offered a chance of liberation from parental regulation and the trap of married drudgery. Most European women still had not so benefited by , but there was an accelerating process at work, and such developments were already stimulating other demands for example for education and professional training.

A second great transforming force even further from showing its full potential to change European women's lives by was contraception. Early in this century, though little discussed, it had already begun to affect demography in a few countries even if, perhaps, not more than abstention from sexual activity. What lay ahead was a revolution in power and status as more women took in the idea that they might resist the demands of bearing and rearing children which had throughout history dominated most women's lives; beyond that lay an even deeper change, hardly discerned in , as some women came to see that they could seek sexually satisfying lives without necessarily entering the obligation of lifelong marriage.

To the third great tendency moving women imperceptibly but irresistibly towards liberation from ancient ways and assumptions it is much harder to give an identifying single name, but if one force drove it, it was technology.

It was not quite confined to the developed economies though most apparent in them and, therefore, a phenomenon common to Europe and the USA. A vast number of innovations, some of them slowly accumulating already for decades, all tended to cut into the iron timetables of domestic routine and drudgery.

Their effect was for a long time little more than marginal. The coming of piped water, or of gas for heating and lighting, reduced drudgery in the home; electricity's cleanliness and flexibility was later to have even more obvious effects.

The great stores which made their appearance in the nineteenth-century cities, as well as smaller shops able to offer wider ranges of choice, had been the advance guards of big changes in retail distribution providing a notion of luxury to people other than the rich, and making it easier to meet household needs. As refrigerated, imported food, and better processing and preserving became available, they changed patterns of family catering once based — as they are still often based in Asia or Africa — on daily or twice-daily visits to the market.

The world of detergents and easily cleaned artificial fibres still lay in the future in , but soap and washing soda were available far more easily and cheaply then than years earlier, while the first domestic machines — gas cookers, vacuum cleaners, washing machines — had begun to appear in the homes of the rich. All such developments foreshadowed an often almost silent revolution for millions of women.

The gap between the ways in which women are treated in the developed world and those countries where tradition retained its grip was, in fact, to widen enormously in this century. It was one of many reflexions of the growing differences in wealth between two sorts of society. Even in western countries, too, the implications of such humble household instruments as cookers and washing-machines did not strike many people at the beginning of this century and perhaps still do not strike many historians sufficiently ; labour was still cheap.

There were heroines among them, but fanatics, too; they attracted ridicule, as well as hatred and fear. The evident liberalization and democratization of political institutions in the interest of men argued powerfully for them, though. Logically, democracy could hardly fail to cross the boundaries of sex when France, Germany and several smaller European countries had universal adult male suffrage, and Great Britain and Italy had mass electorates of many millions. The question was bound to be brought forward: Soon after , the issue was causing uproar in England.

But by only Finland then part of the Russian empire and Norway had admitted women to Europe's parliamentary electorates.

The issue was to remain open in Switzerland for another sixty years. But there were other signs of change. In , only a few weeks after the rejection by the House of Commons of a bill to give women the vote, the first woman magistrate in the United Kingdom was appointed. Adapted and illustrated do be posted by Leopoldo Costa. It has a long and venerable history, and it was known in the time of the pharaohs an in ancient Greece and Rome.

It is mentioned in the Torah, and it was one of most sought-after commodities in the early days of the spice trade. Today, Sri Lanka is the main producer, and its cinnamon is believed to be the best. Cinnamon is also cultivated in other tropical regions, particularly the Seychelles. The bark of the tree is harvested during the rainy season, when it is moist and easier to remove.

Workers first cut the small branches, or shoots, from the trees and scrape off the coarser outer bark. When the bark is processed, smaller pieces, called quillings, often break off, and these are inserted in the quills as the peelers form them. Quillings that break off as the cinnamon dries are used for ground cinnamon. Cinnamon bark is thinner and more brittle than cassia bark, and the fragrance is more delicate as well. The aroma is warm, sweet, and agreeably woody, and the taste is equally warm.

Unlike cassia, cinnamon bark can be ground at home in a spice grinder. The quills are paler than cassia quills, and the powder is pale tan rather than reddish-brown. They were an important part of the early spice trade Columbus was looking for the Spice Islands when he landed in the West Indies. Indonesia remains one of the largest producers, and the trees are now grown in Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Tanzania, and Grenada as well.

Cloves are harvested by hand, and the trees must be at least six years old before the first harvest, though they will then continue to bear fruit for fifty or so years longer. There are two yearly harvests, and the process requires a delicate touch. The buds are gathered when they have reached full size but have not yet opened, and they do not all reach the proper stage at the same time, so the pickers have to be discerning when choosing which clusters of buds to harvest. Then the buds are removed from the stems, again by hand, and dried in the sun for several days.

They are pungent and highly aromatic, warm and slightly peppery. The taste is strong, even medicinal, warming, and sweet; if chewed, cloves leave a lingering numbing sensation on the tongue.

Good-quality cloves may release a small amount of oil if pierced with a fingernail. When purchasing whole cloves, avoid jars or packages with many noticeable stems, which have far less of the volatile oil than the buds. Ground cloves should be dark brown; a lighter color is an indication that the mix includes ground stems as well and is of a lesser quality. Cloves are used in Middle Eastern, Indian, and North African cooking, in rich or spicy meat dishes, including Moroccan tagines, and in some curries, and they enhance many rice dishes.

With their strong flavor, they should always be used sparingly. When the dish is served, the whole cloves may be removed or not, but they are generally not consumed. A clove-studded onion is often added to chicken stock as it simmers. Cloves are used in baking in Europe and North America, and in poached fruits and mulled wine. They combine well with many other spices, especially warming ones, and they are an ingredient in numerous spice blends, including garam masala, quatre épices, baharat, and berbere.

Cloves have been valued for medicinal purposes since ancient times, as a painkiller, among other uses clove essential oil is still used to treat toothaches. They are also believed to alleviate intestinal distress, and they can be chewed as a breath freshener. The fruit resembles a meagre peach, but is inedible. The kernel is used, sliced or ground, in cooking.

Some trees produce bitter almonds; these have to be roasted before eating to eliminate their poisonous prussic acid. Almonds were being collected from the wild by the inhabitants of Franchthi Cave by 10, BC, and in Turkey, Syria and Palestine by that time or soon afterwards. Cultivation was probably under way by the third millenium BC: The almond was among the earliest of the domesticated fruit trees of the eastern Mediterranean, since, unlike some of the others, it can be propagated from seed At Greek banquets they they were frequent constitutent of dessert Bitter almonds were placed in sacci, bouquets, and to impart their flavour and medicinal properties to wine as it was served.

These properties were widely reputed to include the prefention of drunkenness Sweet almonds produce a mild-flavoued oil Both kinds of almonds, and their oils, were important medicinally. Perhaps the oldest, as well as the most widely known, of the world's nut crops, almonds were first cultivated in Europe by the Greeks, are mentioned frequently in the Old Testament, and were a favorite of the Romans, whose sugared almonds may have been among the first sweetmeats in history.

Recipes incorporating almond "flour" date from the Middle Ages in Europe, a period when almond "milk" was also used--as a liquid substitute for milk and eggs on days of fasting. The Spaniards brought the almond to the New World, where it is now grown extensively in California There are two types of almonds: Nuts of the latter type contain prussic acid and thus are toxic when raw; these must be blanched and roasted before being processed into an oil, a paste, or an extract that is sued to flavor liqueurs and some confections.

Almond paste is the soul of macaroons and marzipan. Cambridge] Volume 2, p. Aaron's rod, which miraculously bore flowers and fruit, was of almond wood Numbers The ancient Greeks cultivated almonds, and their name for the nut, amygdalon, had become, via Latin, the botanical name of the species and, in corrupted form, is the name in modern European languages In classical times Phoenician traders introduced its cultivation into Spain; and it was being grown in the south of France Uses of almonds are in many instances of great antiquity.

They were of early importance in early Arabic and medieval European cookery, partly as a source of the almond milk which was used in early versions of blancmange Such products as marzipan and nougat and macaroon all depend on it. The Spanish range of almond-flavored cakes, biscuits, etc.

Most important are the kernels of apricots Special varieties with uninteresting fruit are grown soley for their large, sweet, nontoxic seeds, which are used as almonds are used in the West. True almonds are barely known and not normally used. Anderson Yale University Press: New Haven] p. Domestication of the almond, Prunus amygdalus, is usually placed in an area stretching from the eastern Mediterranean to Central Asia, where it is found in the wild.

Likely it was domesticated by the third millennium B. The early Chinese knew of the tree and its kernels in Persia and other lands to the west. They also imported almond kernels, as among the tribute sent from Turkestan to China in T'ang times. The tree itself was reported by the Arab merchant Soleiman to be cultivated in China in the mid-ninth century Though the above would seem to leave little doubt that almonds had been cultivated at least somewhere in China or its margins, there has nevertheless been controversy among Western scholars as to whether, at least in traditional times, almonds were actually grown there and whether the kernels that foreigners in China often called 'almonds' were almonds or apricot kernels.

Adding to the confusion were the similarities in appearance, taste, and use between apricot and almond kernels, which sometimes led the Chinese, on their part, to call the almond kernel by the name 'apricot kernel.

He also presented evidence from the Chinese literature suggesting that it was still cultivated there in the nineteenth century, but allowed the possibility that almond cultivation 'is now extinct in China. To this writer, it seems reasonable to believe that the almond could not have been widely cultivated in China and been missed by so many widely-traveled, careful observers. Yet the evidence presented by Laufer seems to leave the possibility open that the almond continued to be cultivated in some places, especially in the far northwest.

Boca Raton FL] p. This fits with H. Li's statement on the matter The fruit of the best variety contains a large stone with a fairly-soft shell and sweet kernel, and may be served as a snack, sometimes sugared, along with raisins and other kinds of nuts, or ground into almond flour which is made into almond cakes or cookies or into a thin porridge.

On occasion, such kernels may be salted, and in appearance and flavor are just like real almond. As for the preparation of such almond soup, Meyer noted that first rice was boiled until soft, then pounded and mixed with water until it had the consistency of milk.

Then a few bitter almonds were ground up and blended in along with sugar, and the soup served hot. The soup, which was tasty and stimulating, was commonly consumed by the Chinese just before going to bed. Such 'almond soup' or 'almond tea' was well-liked as a snack not only among the people of North China but in the Ch'ing court, was also believed effective against sore throat There was also a popular dish, found among those of Ch'ing court, called 'Almond Curd,' a cold gelatin dessert made of water, agar-agar, ground almonds, and sugar Prepared in a different, somewhat more elaborate way is the Cantonese dessert 'Fried Almond Custard' Chinese almonds are also commonly used in other ays, as in candies, cakes, and cookies, and in a broad range of main dishes, such as Cantonese 'Red and White Chicken with Almonds' and the Szechwanese 'Almond Duck'.

In the spring, the tree was one of the first to bloom, and late frosts could easily destroy its delicate buds. If the almond tree survived the frosts, it soon became a bestower of a wealth of gifts. In addition to providing nuts, oil, and shells for fuel, the almond tree was aesthetically pleasing, with lovely flowers and beautiful leaves. So the almond tree inspired worship The identification of the almond as father or as mother reflected the fact that almond blossoms herald the spring and thus the birth of vegetation.

Because the almond tree blossoms suddenly, the Hebrews considered it a symbol of haste, and because the almond tree that survives the frosts bestows gifts of nuts and oil, they considrered it a symbol of vigilance People revered the almond tree as a provider--of life, of love, and of happiness.

Santa Barbara] p. The practice of coating nuts and seeds for preservation purposes is ancient. Colorful sugar-coated almonds surface in Medieval times and flourish in the "modern" era. Recipes progressed via technology and time.

Of the latter, Jordan almonds are probably the most highly regarded variety. Their long thin shape may have inspired the comparison of oriental women's eyes to almonds. They have no connection whatsoever with Jordan they are mainly grown in Spain, in fact ; their name is an alteration of Middle English jaren 'garden' almond. Jordan Almonds are long and plump and pointed at one end They are highly esteemed both as a dessert item and for confectionery purposes.

The Government will now experiment with the trees to determine the best localities for growing them. This species of almond is regarded by the agricultural authorities as the finest in the world, but only its fruit has heretofore reached this country, the trees having been jealously guarded in Spain.

The bush has been forwarded here by the Agricultural Department's agent, who is seaching in Spain for rare plants. They did not get on very well with their first attempts, but recently a nursery company doing business at Alameda imported some almond trees from France, where Jordan almonds are rarely found, and from one of these trees some very good specimens of what were supposed to be real Jordan almonds were 9produced.

In order to find out whether they were real Jordans, the nursery company sent samples to the United States Consul in Malaga The taste seemed quite the same, and there is a very little difference in the shape.

A surprising feature of this incident lies in the fact that the almonds in question are said to have been grown on a tree imported from France The report from California and the result of my investigation would indicate If this be true, California growers probably will find the matter will be worth their attention, as both the demand and the prices for Jordan almonds have steadily increased during recent years. Sugar coated nuts, known in Renaissance times as comfits have long been proferred as gifts.

Until recently, sugar coated almonds were expensive. They were reserved for the finest banquets, especially wedding feasts. Today's wedding favors typically feature http: In , Massailot mentioned placing on the banquet table little baskets of dry sweetmeats decorated with ribbons: Not just wedding guests: Metz, Nancy, Paris, Verdun and Toulouse are among the cities and towns of France famous for their sugared almonds.

Earlier still, however, the Romans of classical times distributed them at public and private ceremonies. Sugared almonds are mentioned amnong the gifts given to great men in accounts of receptions In fifteenth-century Cambrai, Marguerite of Burgundy, at her wedding to Guillaume IV of Hainault, wished to have sugared almonds given 'to the common people by her comfit-maker Pierre Host New York] p. At the time of his immigration from Italy, Mr.

Ferrara was a confectioner, skilled in the art of making Sugar coated candy almonds are otherwise knwon as "confetti" in Italy and other parts of Europe. These candy-coated almonds were also called Jordan Almonds or almond dragees, and they continue to be a tradition at many weddings and celebrations.

Early on, then they were covered with white sugar, they were a candy that symbolized purity and fertility From to , the sugar coated almond business grew. Ferrara was soon shipping his classic, always fresh and in-demand product all over the Midwest. Portland OR] p. Adapted an illustrated to be posted by Leopoldo Costa.

We would exert ourselves to no result if we tried to evoke it; all the efforts of our intelligence are of no use. Why does it seem to crop up everywhere we look? What are the mechanisms that determine its influence on how we chose, buy, consume, and enjoy ourselves? After all, one could say, eating and drinking are mere reflections of biological necessities and functions. If this were actually the case, how could they ever become an arena for competing political projects, ideological approaches, and deep beliefs and principles?

If food were only a matter-of-fact, mundane requirement with which all humans need to cope on a daily basis, just like breathing or sweating, how could it acquire such weight and become the expression of multi-layered and intense attachments? The answer is quite straightforward: In fact, hunger and the desire for incorporation and appropriation, together with sexual drives, are arguably at the origin of consumption in all its expressions.

It is definitely the case for contemporary consumerism, which lies at the core of Western society as its propelling engine, filtered through social and economic structures and dynamics. After all, it was the desire for goods and commodities that prodded Europeans to travel, explore, and colonize Braudel ; Wallerstein ; Welch Nevertheless, as modern Western consumers, we are definitely more complex than a simple bundle of drives and impulses. We are far from being defenseless victims of marketing and political maneuvers.

We think, we evaluate, we decide, basing our choices and actions on values and goals. Although crucial, the emotional and physical influences of hunger and ingestion on our day-by-day choices and behaviors are not sufficient to explain their impact on our perceptions and on the ways we categorize reality and deal with it. However, we cannot revert to the opposition between rationality and the soul, on the one hand, and matter, the flesh, and feelings, on the other. I will address the possibility of a different resolution of the contrast between reason and emotions, spirit and body.

To do this, we have to plunge into the complex and often still mysterious processes of the human brain, in order to acquire a better understanding of how our minds work. Food will provide us an unusual point of entry into the functions of the brain, emotions, and memories. It is enough to pause and recall our liveliest memories related to taste, smell, and sensual pleasure to realize that they do not simply mirror past events.

Instead, they are vivid, profound, and emotional. Our bodies almost seem to relive these moments. We are all more or less acutely aware of this. How does that happen? As a matter of fact, as we will see, most scientists now seem to agree that sensations and emotions heavily influence not only recollection, but also rational processes. According to recent research in neuroscience —exciting but developing and open-ended, like all scientific endeavor — memories turn out to be not fixed once and for all, but rather the result of an ongoing dynamic interaction between different activities in the brain and the information we receive from the senses.

That is to say, the brain re-creates memories in different ways every time they are recalled, depending on emotional and sensory stimulations. Memories are alive and a fundamental part of who we are and of how we experience our lives. Gustatory and olfactory ones are especially intense.

Their power over our functionality, even if often unconscious, enhances our experiences of desire, pleasure, pain, our emotional states and motivations. Our body appears to be involved in all cognitive processes, including rational ones. We cannot disregard its relevance for our participation in consumption and pop culture. Let flavors and scents guide us in exploring our brains and bodies. And could there be a better muse than a chef who is also a scientist?

I have been a neurologist and a neurophysiologist for twenty years, and a chef for six. Being both a successful chef and a respected scientist, he is in a privileged position to analyze the connections between cognition and recollection in the realm of food and flavors. His whole argument, which also influences his cooking style, is based on the concept that memory and mind activities, at least in the case of food, are closely connected with emotions through the senses, the body, and its most basic needs, hunger and thirst.

Nevertheless, the spirit and the degree of ability to feel sensations depend exclusively on the individual. The only necessities that the body recognizes from the brain are, in gastronomy, hunger and thirst. The necessity is to stay alive in some way or another: Everything depends on sensations; then memory and remembering take us to the world of analysis, from which a state of wellbeing and happiness, as well as its contrary, can derive.

His work enhances the notion that food is at the frontier between the biological and the cultural. No other organ in the human being embodies the complexity of this frontier better than the brain itself, where electrical and chemical signals become the texture of perception, memory, thought, creativity, and emotions.

Already in the seventeenth century, the French philosopher Descartes identified the pineal gland — the small endocrine organ located in the center of the brain that is responsible for the production of melatonin — as the contact point between res extensa and res cogitans, that is to say, between body and soul, the material and the spiritual worlds Descartes The fact that he focuses on food and its appreciation — that is to say, pleasure — is particularly relevant since taste and smell are the least studied senses, whose importance and impact on mental processes and especially on memory have been almost neglected Classen ; Rouby et al.

While highlighting the connections between food and memory, he states: It is something as lively and nimble as our own self, since. These theories consider the senses and memory as faculties that limit themselves to mirror nature, and their contents as more or less precise reflections of the external world.

For the Spanish chef, recollections are rather the result of an ongoing dynamic interaction between different properties of the brain and the stimuli deriving from the senses. In this process, memory is not fixed once and for all, but, rather, a creative and vibrant faculty that allows human beings to relive the past each time in different ways. Furthermore, memory depends heavily on the body, not only because most of the material the mind elaborates is derived from the senses, but also because the body and the emotions connected with it pleasure, pain, fear influence the way memories are maintained and eventually recalled.

The necessary conclusion is that rational processes, heavily depending on memories, cannot be totally isolated from what is traditionally considered irrational, physical, and instinctual. Many activities, such as eating, cooking, having sex, dancing, singing, and exercising, place themselves beyond the mind vs. Using food and eating as points of departure, we will approach alternative theories concerning sensations, memory, and emotions, and more generally the relationship between body and mind.

We will see how pop culture employs food-related images and concepts to reflect on these issues, endorsing different theories and making them popular with the general public in the form of more or less natural assumptions about how our minds function, the role of feelings and sensations, and the appreciation of our own bodies.

Several science fiction narratives are based on an understanding of this function as a storage device where pieces of knowledge, actions, and even emotions are stored in neat equivalents of computer bytes, ready to be retrieved and, if necessary, mechanically substituted with electronically originated elements.

Mnemonic materials are considered discrete, composed of recognizable, circumscribed, interchangeable, reproducible components that can also be disposed of. Memories can be easily transferred from a human being to a machine: This theme plays an especially important role in sci-fi movies such as Johnny Mnemonic, The 6th Day, Strange Days, and many others.

Just plug a computer in and upload. The information that you need will be safely and unassumingly stored in the memory of a professional. In Robocop 3 the antagonists try to deprive Robocop of the emotional content of his memories, in order to transform him into a stupid but efficient killing-machine. The theme of the cyborg, which usually is employed to undermine the concept of a unified, Cartesian subject, here denies the complexities of the mental life of human beings.

In the visionary movie 12 Monkeys, by Terry Gilliam, the character played by Brad Pitt, the schizoid founder of an anarchic organization trying to destroy humankind by spreading a deadly virus, finds himself wondering how his ex-psychiatrist managed to discover his plot.

Six years ago I had not thought about the 12 monkeys They learned everything about me, and they put that into a computer where they created this model of my mind. Using that model, they managed to generate every thought I could possibly have in the next, say, ten years, which they then probably filtered through some probability matrix of some kind to determine everything I was going to do in that period.

So they knew everything I was going to do even before I knew it myself. In The 6th Day the personal memories of the main character, played by Arnold Schwarzenegger, are extracted through the optic nerve, saved on disk, and then transmitted to his clone, without suffering any damage. During the movie both the main character and the clone share the same personality, the same sensibility, and the same set of memories, up to the point where they were extracted.

Once again, memories appear to be easily encoded into bits and bytes, kept in some artificial device and used when necessary, without any change even if the person who uses them is not the same who produced them in the first place. At the dawn of the third millennium a machine has been created which is able to record everything a person experiences, sees, and feels, when connected with the surface of his or her head. Stored on diskettes, these memories can be replayed, allowing another individual to relive them, with all their emotional charge and the sensations connected with them.

Needless to say, the memory diskettes become a very popular device with the porn industry. These similarities between humans and machines appear to be so widely spread and accepted that contemporary culture often refers to computers to create metaphors for our brain. Political scientists Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri affirm: Today we increasingly think like computers, while communication technologies and their model of interaction are becoming more and more central to laboring activities Interactive and cybernetic machines become a new prosthesis integrated into our bodies and minds and a lens through which to redefine our bodies and minds themselves.

The anthropology of cyberspace is really a recognition of the new human condition. Intriguingly, they use eating and ingestion to make their point. Let us start with The Matrix , a motion picture that at the turn of the century became an instant cult for the wired, Internet-oriented, dot. In the year or so, machines dominate the world.

To do so they exploit human beings as a source of heat and electricity which is to say, food: In reality, humans are kept in a state of suspended animation within cocoons, deprived through wires and pipes of their life force, while dreaming of a normal life. A group of men, aware of the situation, decide to live outside the illusion and to jeopardize the whole system to free humanity. Although the main tenet of the movie is the intrinsic similarity between the human brain and computers, there are two back-to-back scenes that appear to undermine these assumptions.

Interestingly enough, both scenes focus on food. The first one takes place in a restaurant located in the virtual reality projected on the human mind. One of the rebels is cutting a deal with an envoy of the machines to betray the rebel leader. All he wants in exchange is to be sucked into the matrix and to abandon the sad reality of the dehumanized world, though he is fully aware the whole move is a delusion.

The two characters talk over a steak. I know that when I put it in my mouth the matrix is telling my brain that it is juicy and delicious. After nine years, you know what? The other scene happens in the rebel warship, in the grim reality outside the matrix.

Did you ever eat tastee wheat? No, but technically neither did you. Because you have to wonder, now. How do the machines really know what tastee wheat tasted like? Maybe they got it wrong. Maybe what I think tastee wheat tastes like actually tasted like oatmeal or tuna fish, that makes you wonder about lots of things. You take chicken, for example. Maybe they could not figure out what to make chicken taste like.

Which is why chicken tastes like everything. Shut up, Mouse Rebel 4: Everything the body needs. No, it does not have everything the body needs. The dialogues point out that machines cannot possibly know what real food tastes like, and above all that they cannot convey the actual sensations that flavor memories elicit. The Matrix algorithms are not able to give the same depth and emotional value as real food recollections to neural perceptions of taste and smell, although the system is able to re-create them, and also to activate the connection between food and sex.

In the second episode of the Trilogy, The Matrix Reloaded , the Merovingian, an embodiment of the computer system, is able to give an orgasm to a woman through a slice of chocolate cake.

Despite the virtual world created by the machines, however, the body seems to reaffirm its own autonomous, specific memories — in particular, gustatory and olfactory ones.

In the not-too-distant future, a biotech company finds a way to ensure longer lives to all those who can afford it, providing them with organs developed from their own tissue that can substitute aging or damaged ones.

During the development of the projects the scientists realized that organs could only thrive and grow as part of bodies. As the manager of the project states: As a matter of fact, as the plot unfolds, Lincoln 6 Echo discovers he is able to ride a high-speed motorbike or to drive a boat simply because, as a clone, he was developed from the tissue of his original donor: As they say, once you learn how to ride a bike, you never forget.

At least in the movie, you do not forget your food preferences either. In one of the first scenes, Lincoln 6 Echo craves bacon at a breakfast counter, where a very unfriendly canteen lady tries to impose the foods that have been chosen for him by his creators in order to ensure his health. He is actually mirroring the likes and dislikes of the person from whom he has been cloned. You have a nutrition flag. And a little powder sugar.

The power of these bodily and sensual memories is so strong that the new clones need to be conditioned with new memories in order to avoid any resurgence of the past. It does not work, though. The body still remembers, if not consciously, in the form of dreams. It is actually after dreaming of driving a boat that Lincoln 6 Echo starts having doubts about his situation. Again, in a visit to the doctor, he expresses his malaise in terms of food, the only communication tool he can still master.

Tuesday night is tofu night, and I ask to myself: And what is tofu anyway? I want answers, and I wish there were more. Fuel for the Brain Despite the exceptions we mentioned, which interestingly use food to get their point across, most science fiction movies, books, and comic books are particularly attuned to theories that assume a fundamental similarity in the ways computers and human brains operate. As a matter of fact, contemporary pop culture often references computers to create metaphors for our brain.

Outside the realm of fiction, many scientists seem to share a similar take on mind and memory that developed into a new branch of research — cognitive psychology — during the second half of the twentieth century. Cognitive psychologists are not primarily interested in analyzing the mind at the physiological and neural level, understanding its structure and function starting from the cell level up. In an introductive book to cognitive science, oddly enough, kitchen recipes are used as metaphors to describe how the brain operates.

A recipe usually has two parts: The recipe analogy for thinking is weak, since ingredients are not representations and cooking instructions require someone to interpret them". As psychologist Jerry Fodor elaborated in , brain operations would be based on modules, each focusing on a specific function, e.

The medium within which these modules can operate can be indifferently a brain or a machine. The relevance of the research on Artificial Intelligence AI can be attributed to the spectacular advance of this discipline and to the fact that modern computers and robots are symbol-using entities, based on formal systems.

Furthermore, AI reinforces the choice of cognitive psychologists to concentrate on the software of the mind rather than on its hardware Flanagan To a certain extent, humans and computers are different manifestations of the same phenomenon: According to these theories, the long-lasting mind vs. Furthermore, the logical and rational aspects of the mind take over its emotional side since emotions are closely connected with the body and its responses to external stimuli, even if under brain control.

Nonetheless, with the enormous development of neuroscience in the last 20 years, many scientists have turned their attention back to brain structures, trying to come to terms with the new discoveries about the relevance of their physical functions and dynamics Thagard Joseph LeDoux noted in his seminal work The Emotional Brain that it is not possible to separate cognition from the emotional elements of the mind.

Furthermore, LeDoux argues, the hardware, the actual structure of the brain, is non-secondary in understanding the mind, especially when it comes to emotions LeDoux It is not an easy task. One of the most influential voices in this field is the Nobel Prize recipient Gerald Edelman. In his book A Universe of Consciousness , written with Giulio Tononi, he underlines the features of the brain that point to fundamental differences with computers.

Since no two brains are identical, the overall pattern of connections in a brain can be defined in general terms, but the microscopic variability of these connections in different individuals is enormous because of their developmental history and their past experiences.

For instance, when it comes to food, although children of the same family might be genetically similar and are likely to be exposed to the same dishes, they all show their own likes and dislikes, different tastes, sometimes even diverging memories concerning the same events.

Synaptic connections change, die, are created every day, and vary in each individual, affecting the way things and events are remembered Edelman and Tononi Of course, computer simulations of neural networks reveal that a man-made system can develop exceptional complexity in a short time if it is programmed to develop patterns that are beneficial to the goal it is created to carry out.

Nevertheless, the inputs the brain receives from the external world are not an unambiguous series of signals, as in the case of computers. The brain has developed functions aimed and filtering and organizing perceptions into categories, which are instrumental to our interaction with the world. Furthermore, our perceptions and the categories we use to give them order are not neutral, impassionate, and impartial.

These dynamics are regulated by organs — sometimes defined as the limbic system — located outside the cortical areas in charge of rational thinking. The evaluation of relevance is also determined by substances e. All these elements influence the strength of synapses i. These dynamics have a great impact on learning, categorizing abilities and adaptive behaviors.

Not every item is retained in the same way, or always retrieved in the same way. The brain, like all features of living systems, is both being and becoming, its apparent stability a stability of process, not of fixed architecture. Flavors and Memories If memories are anchored to our sensual and physical experiences, we can easily understand how the connection between body and mind, and in particular between memory and food, with its flavors and smells, has become a center of interest for sociologists, anthropologists, and ethnographers, both as topics of research and as methodology Geurts ; Howes ; Sutton Outside academia, too, these themes frequently appear in various forms of pop culture all over the world.

Memory seems to play a key role especially in contemporary movies that revolve around food, a theme that in the past few years has become central in all sorts of film genres, following the growth of general interest towards food and eating in Western societies. The evocative potential of moving images acquires a particular depth and power when cuisine and ingestion are used to convey feelings and emotions that would otherwise be difficult to express visually or verbally.

It is often when women are involved that food and cooking reveal their deeper connections with memory, especially with activities that involve meal preparation, nourishing, and nurturing. Needless to say, these chores are identified with a bodily dimension that has been historically considered not very intellectual, since it deals with the sheer survival of individuals, families, and communities, rather than with personal achievements and spiritual aspects of life.

When the lead characters are women, movies often shift towards genres such as biography, memoir, sentimental journey, and romantic exploration, where visual and narrative elements concur to put viewers in touch with the more emotional and mundane aspects of life: Both novels were adapted for the big screen as amusing and touching movies, starring the sensual Brazilian actress Sonia Braga and directed by Bruno Barreto respectively in and The character of Dona Flor in particular finds in food a conduit through which she can express her sensuality and also develop her business expertise, affirming herself as an individual.

She actually manages a cooking school, while her husband Vadinho, a gambler who is nevertheless capable to keep her sexually happy, spends all their money. When he dies of a heart attack during Carnival, Donha Flor marries the town pharmacist, a very decent man who lacks passion and sexual appetites. She soon finds herself desiring Vadinho so much that she begs a Candomblé priestess to bring his spirit back. Eventually Flor keeps them both, one to satisfy her sexual and bodily appetites, the other to give her respect and to make her a lady.

Food plays a more crucial role in the book than in the movie, but also on film some scenes remain unforgettable. Right after the death of Vadinho, she relives their passion by thinking of one of his favorite dishes, the moqueca de siri mole, a soft-shell crab stew with coconut milk and red palm oil, and the memory of the sensations that punctuated their sexual bliss carry her back to the first night after the wedding, when his mouth tasted like onion, one of the main ingredients of the recipe.

During one of her most lonely moments, she compares herself to a hot, steaming dish that no man consumes and enjoys. Isabela Oliveira Cruz is a very talented chef who is deeply in love with her husband Toninho. They own a restaurant in Bahia where she cooks while her husband works the front of the house, taking all the merit for the success of the establishment. When she discovers him in bed with another woman, she runs away to visit a transvestite friend in San Francisco, finding a job as a teacher in a cooking school.

One day, while preparing a moqueca, the smell of the malagueta pepper brings back memories of Toninho, of how he would rub some chili peppers on her lips to arouse her. That is when she realizes she has to free herself of those memories, and also with the intervention of a Candomblé priestess she manages to set herself free.

That is when her career as a chef takes off. The flavors and scents of her dishes, reminiscent of Brazil, make her famous as a TV celebrity chef, able to excite and stimulate both men and women with her cooking. Tita actress Lumi Cavazos , brought up in the kitchen by the Indian cook Nacha, is condemned to celibacy in order to take care of her mother in her old age. Her love interest Pedro Marco Leonardi decides to get married to one of her sisters so that he can be close to her.

In the novel by Joanne Harris, Chocolate, brought to the screen by Lasse Hallström in , chocolate brings back to life a whole village suffocated by the traditionalism of the local mayor and other oppressive characters. Vianne, an independent woman traveling around with her young daughter, is a descendant of the Mayas, and she has inherited the faculty to be able to use chocolate to treat any emotional trauma. The sweet substance comes to embody all that is passion, body, and sensuality, able to transmit feelings and recollections.

Chocolate, probably for its supposed effects on women, appears in many movies, novels, and also TV commercials as the favorite substance in the fight against feminine depressive states. However, other foods also would seem to have the power to revitalize women and the men around them: Her research for taste, texture, and technique, with the help of a cohort of unusual male friends, helps her focus on who she is and her goals as a professional, although often it seems that it is the men who know better and are more aware of what she actually needs than herself.

Not all women in the kitchen appear to be so defenseless and in need of guidance. Her encounter with the sweet and disaster-prone Linguini mellows her out a bit, but she remains in charge. Babette, a French refugee in a Danish Protestant village, decides to spend all the money she won in a lottery to offer a memorable dinner to the villagers, whose faith makes them impermeable to any sort of sensual pleasure. She does not care: In all the movies we mentioned, women appear to have access to a special connection with food, which allows them to translate their sensuality and their emotional world in pleasurable — and socially sanctioned — ways.

It is very interesting that when science fiction and action movies, frequently perceived as masculine or at least as favored by young men, focus on food and eating as narrative elements, they seldom refer to nurturing and caring.

They project this approach also on women: Their nurturing role is either secondary or totally absent, even in Storm, who is supposedly a teacher of younger, more insecure mutants.

We could hardly imagine the tomb-raiding Lara Croft , played by Angelina Jolie, as a cooking woman. In the Mr. Jolie plays a killer who leads a double life, playing the devoted housewife to her husband, played by Brad Pitt, who is also an undercover killer.

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